AbstractGlobally, there is a scale of views about family functioning and wellbeing with a great deal of conflicting evidence. In Yemen, conservative social traditions are the norms. Yemen has one of the highest population growth rate and the highest rate of unmet need for FP in the world. This study aimed to explore the perception and attitude about family functioning and attitude among married and unmarried people in selected Yemeni Governorates. The study was conducted in April–May 2014 through house to house community-based cross-sectional survey with a purposively selected sample in 21 districts in 3 Yemeni governorates. The target population was Yemeni citizens aged 15+ years present in households in the targeted districts at the time of data collection. Married and un married respondents were approached equally with a pre-tested questionnaire and only consented respondents were enrolled. Analysis was done using the statistical package for Social Sciences version 22. Differences between married and unmarried respondents was tested by Chi squared test (χ²). Statistical significance was set at p˂0.05. The study involved 2217 respondents. Married and unmarried respondents were not different in their perception and attitude regarding family size, the negative influence of large family size, the relation of family size to children education and age at marriage, and some economic aspects in relation to large family size. However, they differently perceive the meaning of the family; reasons for establishing not different the family and for having children; decision makers for continuation of children education; reasons for postponing marriage, the influence of having too male children on increasing family income and on boosting father’s prestige amongst others. In conclusion; married and unmarried were not different in most of the addressed issues. The few differently perceived issues reflect differences in life experience, reality and social responsibilities. There is a need for further studies to monitor practices related to demographic changes over time in the Yemeni society.
Bernard G. Major Trends Affecting Families in Central America and the Caribbean. United Nations Division of Social Policy and Development. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Program on the Family, 2003. Available at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtstbernard.pdf Accessed 15 July 2017.
Count down 2015. Family planning, poverty & economic development. Available at: www.countdown2015europe.org Accessed 12 June 2017.
OECD (The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2007. Ideal and actual number of children. Family Database OECD - Social Policy Division-Directorate of Employment, Labour and Social Affairs. Available at www.oecd.org/els/social/family/database Accessed 12 July 2017.
Caldwell CJ, Phillips FJ, e-Khuda B. The future of family planning programs. Stud Fam Plann. 2002;33(1):1–10.
USAIDS. 2013. Making the Case for U.S Family Planning Assistance. Available at http://www.jhsph.edu/sebin/u/d/MakingtheCase.pdf Accessed 20 August 2017.
Hayford SR, Agadjanian V. From desires to behavior: Moderating factors in a fertility transition Demographic Research 2012; 26(20) 511–542. doi:10.4054/DemRes.2012.26.20.
RoY, Ministry of Planning & UNDP. The Second National Millennium Development Goals 2010. Report. Available at http://www.undp.org.ye/yemen_mdgs.php Accessed 3 August 2017.
United Nations. World population prospects 2011: the 2010 revision. New York: United Nations. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/trends/WPP2010/WPP2010_Volume-I_Comprehensive-Tables.pdf Accessed 20 August 2017.
Coleman I. Council on Foreign Relations, Expert Brief, Family Planning and U.S. Foreign Policy. 2011. Available at https://www.cfr.org/expert-brief/family-planning-and-us-foreign-policy Accessed 3 August 2017.
RoY. Ministry of Public Health & Population, Population Sector / Reproductive Health 2011. Yemen National Reproductive Health Strategy 2011-2015.
Marie Stapes International (MSI). Perceptions and Realities. Yemeni men and women and contraception. Key findings from a Knowledge, Attitudes Survey and Peer Ethnographic Evaluation Research Study Yemen. 2008. Available at http://www.yamaan.org/uploads/issues/Perceptions_and_realities_full_report_low_res_0-20140524-022959.pdf Accessed 10 August 2017.
Thompson SK. Sampling, 3rd Edition. Wiley. New Jersey 2012.
RoY. Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation. Yemeni population and housing census. Sana'a, Yemen. 2005.
Wetzel JR. Center for Demographic Studies, US Bureau of the Census. 2006. Available at https://www.census.gov/ces/ Accessed 10 August 2017.
Matias M, Fontaine AM. Development and Factor Validation of the Motives towards Parenthood Scale. Paidéia jan.abr 2013; 23(54): 9-20. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1982-43272354201303
Hansen T. Parenthood and Happiness: a Review of Folk Theories Versus Empirical Evidence. Social Indicators Research 2012; 108 (1): 29–64.
Roeters A, Mandemakers JJ, Voorpostel M. Parenthood and Well-Being: The Moderating Role of Leisure and Paid Work. Eur J Population 2016: 32:381–401 DOI 10.1007/s10680-016-9391-3
Aassve A, Goisis A, Sironi M. Happiness and childbearing across Europe. Social Indicators Research 2012; 108(1): 65-86.
Herbst C, Ifcher J. A bundle of joy: does parenting really make us miserable?. 2012. Available at. https://journalistsresource.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/parenting.pdf Accessed 11 August 2017.
Pollmann-Schult M. Parenthood and Life Satisfaction in Germany Comparative Population Studies – Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft 2013; 38(1): 85-108.
Umberson D, Pudrovska T, Reczek C. Parenthood, childlessness, and well-being: A life course perspective. Journal of Marriage and Family 2010; 72(3): 612–629.
Treas J, Van der Lippe T, Tai TOC. The happy homemaker? Married women’s wellbeing in cross-national perspective. Social Forces 2011; 90(1): 111–132.
Nelson SK, Kushlev K, Lyubomirsky S. The pains and pleasures of parenting: When, why, and how is parenthood associated with more or less well-being? Psychological Bulletin 2014; 140(3): 846–895.
Hoffman LW, Hoffman ML. The value of children to parents. In J. T. Fawcett (Ed.), Psychological perspectives on population (pp. 19-76). New York: Basic Books; 1973.
Diener E, & FujitaF. Resources, personal strivings, and subjective well-being: A nomothetic and idiographic approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1995; 68(5): 926-935.
Lucas R E, Diener E, Suh E. Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1996; 71(3); 616-628.
Bruno V. Personhood and parenthood: An Experiental Acount of Balance and Wellbeing. A dissertation presented to the faculty of Antioch University, Santa Barbara. in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology.
Ali SM. Determinants of family size preference in Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review 1998; 28 (3): 207-232.
RoY. Ministry of Public Health and Population and Central Statistical Organization 2014.
Arthur JL. Family Size and its Sociocultural Implications in the Sunyani Municipality of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana, West Africa. Centre for Development Studies, Faculty of Social Science, University of Cape Coast, Ghana. 2005. Available at http://www.ciesin.org/documents/arthurjl.pdf Accessed 10 August 2017.
Van Bavel J, Moreels S, Van de Putte B, et al. Family size and intergenerational social mobility during the fertility transition: Evidence of resource dilution from the city of Antwerp in nineteenth century Belgium. Demography Research 2011; 18(24):313–244.
Fahey T, Keilthy P, Polek E. Family Relationships and Family Well-Being: A Study of the Families of Nine Year-Olds in Ireland University College Dublin, Family Support Agency, Dublin; 2012.
Montez JK, Hayward MD. Early life conditions and later life mortality. In International handbook of adult mortality (pp. 187-206). Springer Netherlands; 2011
Baranowska-Rataj A, Barclay K, Kolk M. Does Family Size Affect the Mortality Risk? Evidence from Swedish Registers. Manuscript prepared for the European Population Conference "Transitions: Opportunities and Threats". 25-28 June 2014, Budapest.
Arthur JL. Family Size and Quality of Life Nexus; Case of The Sunyani Municipality, Ghana; 2014
Nuttall E, Nuttall R, Polit D. et al. The Effects of Family Size, Birth Order, on the Academic Achievement of Boys and Girls American Educational Research Journal 2000, 13(3): 20-25.
CetreS, Clark AE, Senik C. Happy People Have Children: Choice and Self-Selection into Parenthood. Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit Institute for the Study of Labor 2016. Available at http://ftp.iza.org/dp9880.pdf Accessed 10 August 2017.
UNICEF. The Investment Case for Education and Equity. New York, UNICEF 2015. https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Investment_Case_for_Education_and_Equity_FINAL.pdf Accessed 30 July 2017.
Tayfur MDr, Kırdar MG, Koç I. The Impact of Schooling on the Timing of Marriage and Fertility: Evidence from a Change in Compulsory Schooling Law. JEL classification: 2012. J12, J13, I20, D10.
Field E, Glennerster R, Nazneen S, et al. Age at marriage, women’s education and mother and child outcomes in Bangladesh, 3ie Grantee Final Report. New Delhi: International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie); 2016.
Gangadharan, L, Maitra, P. The Effect of Education on the Timing of Marriage and First Conception in Pakistan. Monash University. Available at https://figshare.com/articles/The_Effect_of_Education_on_the_Timing_of_Marriage_and_First_Conception_in_Pakistan/5091340 Accessed 30 July 2017.
UNDP 2016. Human Development Report. Human Development for Every One. UNDP: New York; 2016 Available at http:// hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2015_human_development_report.pdf Accessed 22 June 2017.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.