Rear Seatbelt Usage in Malaysia: Findings from Roadside Observations and Surveys
AbstractIntroductionDespite of its importance for preventing fatal and severe injuries in an event of a crash, limited studies were conducted to find out the status of seatbelt use among rear passengers in Malaysia. This study was conducted to the determine seatbelt use among rear passengers in Malaysia in conjunction with the introduction of the rear seatbelt law that took effect on 1st January 2009.MethodsTwo methods were used; the roadside observations and surveys. A total of 4180 rear passengers were observed during the road side observation and 793 rear passengers were interviewed in the survey.ResultsAbout 41.8 % (95 % CI: 38.3, 45.4) of rear passengers interviewed reported that they “Always/Often’ wore safety belts, while roadside observation recorded slightly lower rate (36.2 % [95 % CI: 34.8, 37.7]). Based on the roadside observation method, male rear passengers were more likely to use rear seatbelts as compared to female rear passengers (with Odd Ratio: 1.17 (95 % CI: 1.03, 1.33)). Both methods consistently reported that rear passengers of Multipurpose Vehicle (MPV)/Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) (survey method “always wear”: 39.3 %, Odd Ratio: 2.02 [95 % CI: 1.13, 3.61], roadside observation method: 51.9 %, Odd Ratio: 2.23 [95 % CI: 1.89, 2.62]) were two times more likely to wear seatbelts as compared to rear passengers of a car.ConclusionsThe two research methods indicate rear passengers in Malaysia were consistently having low seatbelt usage rate. As the rear seatbelt advocacy and enforcement programme are new in Malaysia, efforts to advocate rear seatbelt use should be strengthened. The changes in rear seatbelt usage rate need to be tracked regularly and as an alternative to roadside observation method, interview survey method could be used to measure the seatbelt usage rate and to identify the reason for not using safety belt among rear passengers.
Ichikawa M, Nakahara S, Wakai S. Mortality of front-seat occupants attributable to unbelted rear-seat passengers in car crashes. Lancet, 2002; 43-44.
Broughton J,. The actual threat posed by unrestrained rear seat car passengers. Accid Anal Prev, 2004; 36, 627-629.
Shimamura M, Yamazaki M, Fujiti G. Method to evaluate the effectiveness of safety belt use by the rear passengers on the injury severity of front seat passengers. Accid Anal Prev, 2005; 37, 5-17.
Morgan C. Effectiveness of lap/ shoulder belts in the back outboard seating position. 1999; NHTSA Report Number DOT HS 808945.
Elvik R, Vaa T. The handbook of road safety measures. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science. 2004.
Zhu M et al. Association of rear seat safety belt use with death in a traffic crash: A matched cohort study. Injury Prevention; 2007; 13; 183-185.
World Health Organization. Global status report on road safety; time for action. Geneva, Who Health Organization. 2009
Routley, Ozanne-Smith J, Li D, Hu X, Wang P, Qin Y. Pattern of seatbelt wearing in Nanjing, China. Injury Prevention; 2009; 13, 388-393.
Road Transport Department, Road Transport Act 1987; Rules motor vehicles (rear seatbelt), Amendment 2009.
Norlen M, Fadhli Y, Ilhamah, et al. Achievement of first 3-month advocacy program; rear seatbelt use; public awareness and practice. MRR 09/2008. Malaysia Institute of Road Safety Research. 2008
Beaton SJ, Kramer CF, Thode HC, Hariss D,. A field evaluation of the effectiveness of the Virginia Safety Law. Forensic Rep, 1988; 1, 229-236.
Brillhart BA, Jay HM., The impact of Texas state legislation on the use of safety belts. Rehabil Nurs, 1988; 13, 146-149.
Cope JG, Johnson AW, Grossnickle WF. Behaviour engineering proposals: Effects on drivers and passengers of mandatory use law for safety belts. Percept Mot Skills, 1990; 71, 291-298.
Preusser DF, Williams AF, Lund AK The effects of New York’s seatbelt use law on teenage drivers. Accid Anal Prev, 1987;20, 245-250.
Reinfurt DW, Campbell BJ, Stewart JR, Stutts JC. Evaluating the Noth Carolina safety belt wearing laws. Accid Anal Prev, 1990; 22, 197-210.
Ulmer RG, Preusser CW, Preusser DF, Cosgrove LA. Evaluation of California’s safety belt law change from secondary to primary enforcement. J Safety Res, 1995; 26, 213-220.
Wagenaar AC, Wiviott MB. Effects of mandating seatbelt use: a series of survey on compliance in Michigan. Public Health Res 1986; 101, 505-513.
Williams AF, Wells JK, Lund AK., Shoulder belt use in four states with belt use laws. Accid Anal Prev, 1987; 19, 251-260.
Kim S, Depue L, Spence L, Reine J. Analysis of teenage seatbelt use: From the 2007 Missouri high school seatbelt survey. Journal of Safety Research, 2009; 40,311-316.
Escobedo LG, Chorba TL, Remington PL, Anda RF, Sanderson L, Zaidi AA. The influences of safety belt laws on self-reported safety belt use in the United States. Accid Anal Prev, 1992; 24, 643-654.
Fielding JE, Knight KK, Goetzel RZ. The impact of legislation on self-reported safety belt use in working population. J Occup Med, 1992; 34, 715-717.
Tipton RM, Camp CC, Hsu K. Effects of mandatory seatbelt legislation on self-reported seatbelt use among male and female college students. Accid Anal Prev, 1990; 22, 543-548.
Perkins B.J, Helgerson S.D, Harwell T.S. Attitudes toward a primary seatbelt law among adults in a rural state with a secondary seatbelt law. Journal of Safety Research, 2009; 40, 49-52.
Copyright (c) 2011 NORLEN BIN MOHAMED
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.IJPHR applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication byIJPHR, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that IJPHR content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.