Prevalence and Predictors for PTSD among Firefighters. A Systematic Review

  • Muhammad Naim Bin Mat Salleh Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras 56000 Kuala Lumpur MALAYSIA.
  • Dr Halim Bin Ismail Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras 56000 Kuala Lumpur MALAYSIA.
  • Dr Hanizah Binti Mohd Yusoff Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras 56000 Kuala Lumpur MALAYSIA.
Keywords: Key words, Firefighters -PTSD-Factors- Post Traumatic Stress Disorder- Prevalence


ABSTRACT Introduction: Emergency work with regular exposure to traumatic events may cause a large burden of mental health consequences. Among the first responders, firefighters are generally said to have a larger risk for PTSD as they involve directly and indirectly with critical incidents and traumatic events as part of their duties. This systematic review will determine the prevalence of PTSD and identify factors which associated to the PTSD among firefighters. Methods: Systematic search was performed for published articles from year 2007 till 2017 from five electronic literature databases and the PRISMA checklist was used for the workflow for article selection. 12 articles were selected for final examination from a total of 188 articles screened. Results: The prevalence of PTSD among firefighters are ranged from 6.4% to 57 %. Predictors are include demographic factor (age, educational level and marital status), job factors ( years of service, rank, numbers of traumatic events, job stress, organization stress and burnout, occupational effort, internal locus control, resource availability, debriefing attendance), social support, post traumatic growth, comorbidity (anxiety, depression, work related injuries, chronic musculoskeletal disorder), coping style, resilience, personality, biological factor (adiponectin level) and physical factor (waist circumference, body mass index).Conclusion: Various factors identified in different dimensions and in order to promote the opportunities for firefighters to grow for a better outcome psychologically, it is vital to recognize modifiable factors which are associated with PTSD and research need to focus more on these factors or predictors. 

Author Biographies

Muhammad Naim Bin Mat Salleh, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras 56000 Kuala Lumpur MALAYSIA.
DrPH Student, Department of Community Medicine,Faculty of Medicine.
Dr Halim Bin Ismail, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras 56000 Kuala Lumpur MALAYSIA.
Department of Community Medicine,Faculty of Medicine.
Dr Hanizah Binti Mohd Yusoff, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras 56000 Kuala Lumpur MALAYSIA.
Department of Community Medicine,Faculty of Medicine.


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