International Journal of Public Health Research <p>International Journal of Public Health Research (IJPHR) is a free and open access, published by Department of Community Health, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center. Articles published in this journal are being peer-reviewed, referred and cited by international authors. This journal is indexed in :</p> <ul> <li class="show">My Jurnal (Malaysian Citation Centre)</li> <li class="show">Western Pacific Region Index Medicus</li> <li class="show">Scientific Indexing Services</li> <li class="show">Google Scholar</li> <li class="show">Asean Citation Index</li> </ul> Unversiti Kebangsaan Malaysia en-US International Journal of Public Health Research 2232-0253 <span>IJPHR applies the </span><a href="">Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license</a><span> to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication byIJPHR, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that IJPHR content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.</span> Awareness, knowledge and acceptance of community on Non-communicable diseases intervention – A findings from the “Healthy Community, Develop the Nation” (KOSPEN) in the Southern Zone states of Peninsular Malaysia <p class="15" align="justify"><strong>Introduction: </strong>Community-based health promotion program<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">mes</span>&nbsp;have been recognized as an affectionate approach to reduce behavioral and modifiable lifestyle risk for non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion and factor/s associated with awareness, acceptance, and participation in the “Komuniti sihat, Pembina Negara “ (KOSPEN) community intervention programme.</p> <p class="15" align="justify"><strong>Methods</strong>: The&nbsp;cross-sectional study employed a two-stage&nbsp;proportionate sampling method to select the representative sample of community in Negeri Sembilan, Malacca, and Johor. Face-to-face interviews by trained research assistants using pre-validated questionnaires were the study tool applied.</p> <p class="15" align="justify"><strong>Results</strong>:&nbsp;The study revealed that approximately two thirds of respondents were aware of the KOSPEN program (65.5%) Almost half (45.4%) of the respondents reported involved in the proposed activities namely health screenings (84.8%), health talks (66.4%), and providing plain water informal occasion (52.9%). About two thirds and one-quarter of them have a very good (73.4%) and good (24.1%) general view of this programme. Four out of ten respondents faced difficulties joining the activities. Lack of time (83.0%) was reported as the main barrier &nbsp;</p> <p class="15" align="justify">Conclusion: The KOSPEN program in overall was well accepted by the community. However, the need for future improvement has been highlighted &nbsp;in order to enhance the involvement and participation of the residents</p> <p class="15" align="justify">&nbsp;</p> <p class="15" align="justify"><strong>Keywords</strong>: &nbsp;Awareness, Acceptance, Community Intervention Programme, Non-Communicable&nbsp;Diseases, KOSPEN.</p> Hui Li Lim Siew Man Cheong Pei Pei Heng Kuang Kuay Lim Sumarni Mohd Ghazali Chee Cheong Kee Jia Hui Lim Kuang Hock Lim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-03 2020-06-03 10 2 1215 1218 The correlation between behavior intention and family support on adult pulmonary TB patients in Central Jakarta <p><strong>Background: </strong>The prevalence rate of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Jakarta reaches 0.6%. It is ranked the second largest after West Java (0.7%). To deal the illness, tuberculosis patients need their family support. The general aim of this study is to measure the family support in adult pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Central Jakarta.</p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong>Method: </strong>The research is an analytical research and cross sectional design. The study population are the treatment supporter of adult pulmonary tuberculosis in Central Jakarta area. The subject of the study are the treatment supporter recorded in the YARSI TB care database. The number of samples are determined by quota sampling. The data collected is quantitative data.</p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong>Results: </strong>The respondents involved are 51 people, aged between 17-71 years old. Male respondents are 20 people (39.2%) and female respondents are 31 people (60.3%). The majority of the respondents’ education level is senior high school (70,6%) graduates. The treatment supporters living with the patients are about 45,1%. Family support is good, about 54,9%. Bivariate analysis showed p value=0,033 (correlation between behavior intention and family support).</p><p> </p><pre><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Behavior intention is significantly correlated with the behavior of family support in adult pulmonary tuberculosis patients Motivation and persuasive action are required to maximize the support for pulmonary tuberculosis patients.</pre> Erlina Wijayanti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-17 2020-08-17 10 2 1209 1214 Work history and diagnosed hypertension among older adults in Ghana: Evidence from WHO SAGE Wave2 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>There is limited knowledge in the context of Africa on how work history associates with hypertension at old age.<strong> </strong>Therefore, this paper analyses such an association using Ghana as a case study.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: Data from the World Health Organisation Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health Wave 2 was used to explore four intriguing hypotheses. A multifactor logit regression analysis was performed. The paper also estimated diagnosed hypertension prevalence across subgroups.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the total of 3564 participants examined was 64 ±10years. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 10.3% [95% CI = 9.4 – 11.1]. The highest predicted rate was 41.1% [95% CI = 38.0 – 49.2] among those who stopped working before the statutory retirement age 60 years, whereas it was only 4% [95% CI = 3.7 – 5.2] for those who retired from active work at age 60 years. Those who retired at age &lt;60years recorded the highest risk of hypertension diagnosis [OR = 14.1; CI=10.5-19.5]. There was also a significant association between diagnosed hypertension and a history of working &lt;5 days per week [OR=1.6; CI=1.1-2.3]. It emerged that those with a history of informal sector employment were at significant risk of hypertension at old age, if they worked &lt;5days per week [OR=1.5; CI=1.0-2.3].</p><p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The paper adds to the knowledge of multifactorial risks of hypertension. It provides some evidence and suggests ways in which people can avoid the risk of hypertension at old age during their economically active years. </p> Evans Otieku Marzieh Katibeh Dziedzom Awalime Razak Mohammed Gyasi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-27 2020-08-27 10 2 1219 1227 Determining Method for Dengue Epidemic Threshold in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia <p><strong>Introduction :</strong> Dengue fever is an illness by arthropod-borne viral disease that become known pandemic to the most tropical countries. In 2014, Malaysia reported 108 698 cases of dengue fever with 215 deaths which increased tremendously compared to 49 335 cases with 112 deaths in 2008 and 30 110 cases with 69 deaths in 2009. This study aimed to identify the best method in determining dengue outbreak threshold for Negeri Sembilan and hopefully these methods can be standardized as it can help to send uniform messages to inform the general public and make the outbreak analysis comparable within and between countries.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong> : Using retrospective Negeri Sembilan country dataset from 1<sup>st</sup> epid week of 2011 till the 52<sup>nd</sup> epid week of 2016. The data were split into two periods: 1) a 3-year historic period (2011–2013), used to calibrate and parameterise the model, and a 1-year evaluation period (2014); 2) a 2-year historic period (2014–2016), used to calibrate and parameterise the model, and a 1-year evaluation period (2016), used to test the model. E-dengue is a registration system for confirm case dengue by Ministry of Health. Data include details of cases, district locality, records on the outbreak and epidemiological week (Sunday to Saturday). The variables were captured using the Excel spreadsheet. Analysis method included endemic channel method, moving average or deviation bar chart and recent mean.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: Seremban as big district and facing with heavy dengue cases, all three methods (endemic curve, current mean and moving mean) showed promising results. Meanwhile comparing with small district of Port Dickson and Tampin with fewer dengue cases and outbreak recorded, the suitable method is by using endemic channel for epidemic threshold.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Simpler methods such as the endemic channel, recent mean and moving mean may be more appropriate in urban district. Whereas in rural or district with minimal dengue cases, Endemic Channel would be the most suitable method for epidemic threshold. However, both methods require a consistent updated graph threshold as time progress.</p> Norzaher Ismail Shamsul Azhar Shah Syafiq Taib Siti Nor Mat Nazarudin Safian Mohd Rohaizat Hassan Lokman Rejali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-27 2020-08-27 10 2 Unorganized Health Education: The impact and Challenges! <p>Achieving better health is everyone’s wish and irrespective of various health practice systems, all attempt to end in good health only. To keep us vigil from ill effects around us, we all seek information which will help us to protect us from dangers of diseases. In the modern world, the medium to get all information is in our hands itself and we exchange oceans of information of different nature. But is these information are genuine to adhere and do we owe the responsibility to protect our fellow being before forwarding a health related information.&nbsp; The author has attempted to find out the attitude and practice of exchanging health related information through social media and attempted to analyze its impact on health seeking behavior. A simple random study was chosen in which 300 respondents were chosen. A self-structured interview schedule was administered for collecting the data and through scientific data analysis it is found that majority of the respondents exchange health related information through different social medias. It is also found that majority of the respondents forward health related information irrespective of the genuineness of the content. Although only a one third of the respondents follow various health tips being shared, it is also an alarming signal for health care providers to look into. &nbsp;Sensitizing the public about the organized forms of medical practice is very much needed on one side and controlling the false health related information is a huge challenge on the other side. Owing to individual’s responsibility may save the lives, but using the same medium with appropriate contents will definitely promote the well-being of the nation.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Key Words:</strong> social media, health information, health promotion.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sivakumar Chinnayan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 10 2 Systematic Review of Factors Influencing the Demand for Medical and Health Insurance in Malaysia <h2>Background: Medical and health insurance provides financial protection against the consequences of the occurrences of health risks. Different perceptions have led to resistance to change, as well as the acceptance level from Malaysians. It is fundamental to study the reception and acceptance of all types of insurance schemes by Malaysians and to identify the knowledge and information pertaining to reception by Malaysians.</h2><h2>Methods: A systematic search was performed from six major search engines from 2013–2018 in searches of published articles on factors that influence the demand or willingness to pay for health insurance among Malaysians. There were nine articles included, in which personal factor was found to influence the most when demanding for health insurance.</h2><h2>Results: Higher education level, younger age group, and good knowledge were associated with higher demand for health insurance. Higher household monthly income and the cost to pay were among the positively significant economic determinant factors to demand for medical insurance.</h2><h2>Conclusions: Education and promotion are important to understand why such policies were introduced and how they intend to serve the public before implementing major policies. These elements capture the essence of ‘health promotion’, which is about enabling people to take control over their health and thereby, improving their health.</h2> Ellyana Mohamad Selamat Siti Rasidah Abd Ghani Nurcholisah Fitra Faiz Daud ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-27 2020-08-27 10 2 A Review on the Relationship between Maternal Exposure to Ambient Air Particulate Matter (PM10) and Infants’ Birth Weight in Asia <p>Low birth weight occurs in one in four livebirths in Southeast Asian region. It is contributed by multiple factors including the maternal exposures to the elements in the environment during the antenatal period. Particulate matter (PM<sub>10</sub>) pollution in Southeast Asian region has been extensively studied with known attributions and sources. It is also known that PM<sub>10</sub>is able to restrict foetal grow that molecular level. This review intended to investigate whether the unborn in Asia are affected by the air pollutants indirectly through their mothers. Publications from Scopus and Science Direct digital databases in Asian region from 2015 onwards were reviewed. Details collected were the year of publication and study location, the study design, investigated air pollutants, exposure estimation methods used the timing of exposure in relation to pregnancy, pregnancy outcome measured and the relative risk or odds of effect. A total of eight full text articles were included. Most of the studies were of cohort and quasi experimental designs, involving local air monitoring measurements to assign exposure. There were more studies considered multiple air pollutants as contributing risk rather than a single pollutant. The exposure was measured according to stages of pregnancy and the trimester stratification is the most often method used. Modalities used in representing birth outcomes were not confined to birth weight alone but also included the length of gestation. Exposure to PM<sub>10 </sub>have been found to be associated with reduction in birth weight and increased risk for preterm birth in Asia.</p> Idayu Badilla Idris ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-22 2020-09-22 10 2 Factors in Determining Seizure Control in Pediatric Patients On Antiepileptic Medication: A Review of the Literature <p><em>Pediatric epilepsy is one of the common illness in children. Pediatric epilepsy has significant impact not only to the patient, but also to the care takers. Furthermore, the disease could potentially cause strain in the limited resources of the healthcare system which is preventable.&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <table border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top"> <p><em>&nbsp;A search was conducted to review relevant published studies on factors affecting seizure control using PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar and also Science Direct searching engines databases using keywords: paediatric seizure, seizure control, side effects, antiepileptic, adherence and quality of life.&nbsp;</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>In this review, we found that many factors contribute to the pediatric epilepsy, namely; compliance, genetic, age, socioeconomic factors, parental health literacy and numbers and side effects of the medications.&nbsp;&nbsp;Furthermore, there is certain factors that need to be explored in the future, such as unaddressed parental concern on treatment/medication, denial of disease and drug-drug interactions. Factors that had been identified can be used in the prevention and control programs, while factors which is less studied should be further studied in the future.</em></p> Anaanthan Bhuvanendran Pillai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-22 2020-09-22 10 2 Physical Activity is a Priority in Public Health <p><strong>Letter to the editor of IJPHR</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Title: Physical Activity is a Priority in Public Health</strong></p> Ahmad Taufik Jamil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-22 2020-09-22 10 2