International Journal of Public Health Research <p>International Journal of Public Health Research (IJPHR) is a free and open access, published by Department of Community Health, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center. Articles published in this journal are being peer-reviewed, referred and cited by international authors. This journal is indexed in :</p> <ul> <li class="show">My Jurnal (Malaysian Citation Centre)</li> <li class="show">Western Pacific Region Index Medicus</li> <li class="show">Scientific Indexing Services</li> <li class="show">Google Scholar</li> <li class="show">Asean Citation Index</li> </ul> en-US <span>IJPHR applies the </span><a href="">Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license</a><span> to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication byIJPHR, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that IJPHR content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.</span> (Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Hasni Jaafar) (Sazman Wahab) Thu, 11 Mar 2021 10:48:21 +0800 OJS 60 Post-Flood Impact on the Quality of Life of Victims in East Coast Malaysia <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life among flood victims exposed at three worst districts in Pahang, Malaysia. <strong>Methods: </strong>Semi-guided questionnaires were distributed randomly to a total of 602 flood victims. Quality of life (QOL) was measured using WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), which were assessed based on four domains, i.e. physical activity, psychological, social relationships and environment. <strong>Results:</strong> Victims of the flood had a poorer quality of life in all the domains especially physical (59.0%) and psychological (53.3%) domain. The impact of the flood on QOL was higher among women, those who reside in the urban area, the elderlies and persons with high education and income. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Flood event has reduced the QOL of victims. The impact of flood has been found to be mitigated over the time and relief efforts. Interventions aimed to reduce these concerns in acute post-flood areas are essential to minimize poor QOL among the affected victims.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: Flood, WHOQOL-BREF, Malaysia, victim, QOL, urban</p> Azmawati Mohammed Nawi, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Rozita Hod, Idayu Badilla Idris, Izzah Syazwani Ahmad, Qistina Mohd Ghazali ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 24 Feb 2021 17:13:41 +0800 Underestimation of Cardiovascular Risk among Peri and Post-Menopausal Women <p><strong>Backgrounds</strong></p> <p>Peri- and postmenopausal women are among the high risk group to develop cardiovascular diseases, yet most of this group of women have inaccurate perception regarding their risk of getting the cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to determine accuracy of self-perception on cardiovascular risk and its associated factor among these women attending primary care clinic.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>This study is a cross sectional study involving 292 peri and post- menopausal women who attended outpatient clinic in Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital from May to August 2015. A Bahasa Malaysia version of Perception of Risk of Heart Disease Scale was used to assess participants’ perception on their cardiovascular risk. Framingham Risk Score&nbsp; 2008 was used to calculate cardiovascular risk.</p> <p><strong>Results </strong></p> <p>A total of 265 patients responded. Mean age of the participants were 57.4 ± 7. 87.5% perceived themselves in moderate cardiovascular risk group. 81.9% inaccurately perceived their cardiovascular risk with 48.7% underestimate their&nbsp; risk . Diabetes mellitus,&nbsp; age and&nbsp; systolic blood pressure were associated with underestimation of cardiovascular risk</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong></p> <p>A significant proportion of participants inaccurately perceived their cardiovascular risk and almost half underestimated their risk. More health education need to be done among this group of patients.</p> Norzarina Ireny Mohd Nazri, Lili Husniati Yaacob, Juwita Shaaban ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 09 Mar 2021 14:47:33 +0800 Lower Cut off Point for Blood Lead and Risk of Myocardial Infarction at a Tertiary Hospital in Malaysia: A Case-Control Study <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>Lead (Pb) is one of the pollutants that can cause adverse effects on human health. Exposure to Pb has received much attention in the past decades due to its nearly persistent properties in the environment. Blood Pb measurement is the most convenient as well as most feasible to indicate toxicity exceeded the standard limit of 10 μg/dL. This study aimed to assess the association between blood Pb and myocardial infarction.</p> <p><strong>Methodology. </strong>This was a case-control study conducted at a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study enrolled about 109 respondents; 71 cases of myocardial infarction and 38 non-cases of myocardial infarction. Study instruments include questionnaires on demographic factors (age, gender, and ethnicity), socioeconomic factors (education, household income, occupation), and venous blood lead level. The blood Pb was measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS).</p> <p><strong>Result.</strong> The median (IQR) of blood Pb among the case group was higher compared to the control groups, 3.72 (0.04 – 96.09) μg/dL and 2.81 (0.73 – 6.23) μg/dL respectively. No difference between high (&gt; 10 μg/dL) and normal ( <u>&lt;</u>10 μg/dL) blood Pb with CVD. However, there was a significant association between high normal blood Pb concentration (≥ 5.00 µg/dL) and myocardial infarction (χ<sup>2</sup> = 4.397; p = 0.036).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion. </strong>There is a relationship between lower blood Pb level and the occurrence of myocardial infarction. No difference was found between the blood Pb limit of 10 μg/dL and CVD. The findings of this study are very important and provide new information regarding the lower cut of point for blood Pb and outcome of CVD especially myocardial infarction.</p> <p>Keywords: <em>B</em><em>lood lead, myocardial infarction, CVD Risk factors, lower cut off point</em></p> Rusna Meswari, Mohd Hasni Jaafar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 09 Mar 2021 13:41:27 +0800 Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kualiti Hidup dan Sokongan Sosial Pesakit Berinsuran dalam Program Return To Work (RTW) di Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO) Sabah <p>“Pesakit berinsuran” adalah istilah yang digunapakai PERKESO dalam menjaga kebajikan pekerja yang mengalami kemalangan di tempat kerja. Kajian ini bertujuan melihat kualiti hidup pesakit berinsuran yang menyertai Program <em>RTW</em> dan melihat aspek penerimaan sokongan sosial dari individu terhampir dengan mereka. Kajian keratan rentas ini melibatkan seramai 117 responden. Sampel kajian adalah pesakit berinsuran yang menyertai Program RTW di PERKESO Sabah. Hasil kajian mendapati terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan di antara faktor demografi tahap pendidikan pesakit dengan domain fizikal (t=-2.422, p=0.017), domain perhubungan sosial (t=-2.088, p=0.039), keseluruhan kualiti hidup (t=-2.865, p=0.005). Terdapat perbezaan yang signifikan antara sokongan struktural dengan keseluruhan kualiti hidup (F=4.093, p=0.019), di mana pesakit yang mempunyai sokongan struktural lebih daripada 10 orang mempunyai kualiti hidup yang baik. Analisis korelasi sokongan sosial dan kualiti hidup mendapati terdapat hubungan yang signifikan. Kesimpulannya, tahap pendidikan pesakit yang tinggi menyebabkan mereka mempunyai kualiti hidup yang lebih baik.</p> Syahfiq Edul, Faiz Daud, Natrah Abd Rani, Syahidatun Najwa Abu Zahid ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 16 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0800 Occurrence and antibiotics resistance signatures of Burkholderia Pseudomallei isolated from selected Hospital Final Effluents in Akoko Metropolis within Ondo State Nigeria <p>This study investigated the occurrence of <em>Burkholderia pseudomallei</em> in the final effluent of some hospitals in Akoko metropolis. <em>Burkholderia pseudomallei</em> are the causative agent for melioidosis, a disease which affects both humans and animals. A total number of 155 presumptive <em>Burkholderia </em>species were recovered from thirty six different samples over a period of three months from effluent of three selected hospitals using conventional isolation techniques. A preliminary test was carried out on all the isolates and they were found to be oxidase positive. 67% of the recovered isolates were confirmed to be <em>Burkholderia</em> <em>pseudomallei</em> using Microbact™ 24E Identification kit. Antimicrobial susceptibility test carried out on the confirmed <em>Burkholderia</em> <em>pseudomallei</em> revealed that most isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime and ofloxacin but exhibited resistance against tetracycline and meropenem. The persistence of <em>Burkholderia</em> <em>pseudomallei</em> in the hospital environment throughout the sampling regime requires intervention strategies to eradicate the prevalence of this notable pathogen in all possible reservoirs within the hospital environment. Besides, the emergence of resistance particularly to tetracycline and carbapenems has serious clinical implications. Furthermore, surveillance of <em>Burkholderia </em>species with its antibiogram profiles in clinical environments and adequate treatment of hospital effluents before disposal is very important to avert potential outbreak of melioidosis because the main reservoir for <em>B. pseudomallei</em> is contaminated environments.</p> Ayodeji Charles Osunla, Akinde Thomas Akinmolayemi, Oluwatayo A Makinde, Oluwatayo E Abioye, Emmanuel Juwon Olotu, Felix Adeleke Ikuesan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Mar 2021 11:33:33 +0800 Prevalence and factor(s) associated with smoking cessation among elderly in Malaysia- A findings from the population-based study <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The information of prevalence&nbsp;and associated&nbsp;factor(s)&nbsp;with smoking cessation among the elderly will assist&nbsp;in formulating the suitable policies and reducing&nbsp;the mortality&nbsp;among Malaysian elderly due to&nbsp;smoking-related diseases. This paper&nbsp;aims to describe the prevalence&nbsp;and factor(s) associated with smoking cessation among Malaysian elderly.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: We carried out the population-based study using the cross-sectional study design and a sample size of 2,674 respondents obtained <em>via</em>&nbsp;a multistage&nbsp;sampling method. Validated questionnaire and face-to-face interviews&nbsp;approach&nbsp;were the methodologies employed to collect data from the selected respondents. The interview was conducted by trained enumerator&nbsp;using a standardized and validated questionnaire. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression were used in data analysis. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The present findings demonstrated that almost 1 out of 10 of Malaysian elderly are current smokers. The prevalence of smoking was significantly higher among men (28.1%) compared to&nbsp;women (2.9%). Multivariable analysis showed&nbsp;that males and other ethnicities were less likely to cease smoking, while those with advancing age were more likely to stop smoking compared to the younger-aged elderly. Based on multivariate analysis, diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were not significant factors associated with smoking cessation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong>&nbsp;The study has shown &nbsp;a low&nbsp;proportion of Malaysian elderly&nbsp;is ex-&nbsp;smoker.&nbsp;Suitable measures and programmes&nbsp;should be formulated and implemented to increase the quit smoking rate among them and subsequently to increase the quality of life by reducing the burden of smoking-related disease&nbsp;among the Malaysian elderly.</p> Kuang Hock Lim, Hui Li Lim, Sumarni Mohd Ghazali, Chee Cheong Kee, Chien Huey Teh, Yoon Ling Cheong, Pei Pei Heng, Jia Hui Lim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Mar 2021 19:39:56 +0800 Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Predict Intention to Comply to Iron Supplement during Pregnancy <p>The World Health Organisation (WHO) has recommended iron supplementation to overcome<br>anaemia in pregnancy. In Malaysia, about half of pregnant women with anaemia do not<br>comply to iron supplement. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a<br>questionnaire that assesses the attitude towards iron supplementation and later to predict<br>intention to comply with daily iron supplement among pregnant women. Based on the<br>guidelines for construction of the Theory of Planned Behaviour questionnaire, 18 items were<br>created initially by using the findings from an open-ended questionnaire survey, literature<br>reviews and experts’ opinion. From content validity by 3 experts, 15 items with content<br>validity ratio (CVR) of ≥0.99 were retained. From a pilot test for exploratory factor analysis<br>(EFA), total of 12 items were retained, and classified into 3 components and termed as<br>“Attitudes”, “Subjective Norms” and “Perceived Behaviour Control”. Cronbach Alpha for the<br>12 items was 0.814, and for each component were 0.844, 0.813 and 0.901 respectively, which<br>indicates acceptable internal consistency. During the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), a<br>final 10 items were retained. The construct validity was good where the Fitness Index have<br>achieved the threshold i.e. p-value &amp;gt;0.05, RMSEA &amp;lt;0.08, CFI &amp;gt;0.90 and the ChiSq/df ratio<br>&amp;lt;3.00. The convergent validity and composite reliability were good i.e. Average Variance<br>Extracted (AVE) ≥0.50, and Composite Reliability (CR) ≥0.60 respectively. As a conclusion,<br>the validation of this newly developed questionnaire has shown promising result and<br>potentially reliable in predicting compliance to iron supplement among pregnant women<br>specifically in Malaysia.</p> <p>Keywords: Theory of Planned Behaviour-compliance to iron supplement-questionnaire-<br>development-validation</p> Raudah Abd Rahman, Idayu Badilla Idris, Zaleha Md Isa, Rahana Abd Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 12 Mar 2021 13:32:56 +0800 Knowledge, Perception and Practice of Infection Control among Ministry of Health staffs during COVID-19 Outbreak in Malaysia <p><strong>Abstract</strong><br><strong>Introduction:</strong> Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared as a pandemic in the middle of March as the disease is highly contagious and spread very quickly throughout the world. Understanding the knowledge and practice among healthcare staffs is also crucial especially among the frontlines staffs as they need to be able to protect themselves, and facilitate in educating their patients and public regarding disease prevention measures. The objective of this study is to assess knowledge, practice and perception on the effectiveness of the preventive measures taken by Ministry of Health (MOH) staffs to prevent transmission of the disease and measures they would take should they develop symptoms of the disease on COVID-19 disease. <br><strong>Methodology:</strong> We conducted a cross-sectional online survey from 30th March 2020 to 6th April 2020 among the Ministry of health staffs. 1719 staffs completed the survey. <br><strong>Results:</strong> The overall correct rate of knowledge was 46.6%. Most participants held good perceptions (range from 77.8% to 98.4%) and good practices (range from 88.8% to 99.7%) towards COVID-19 preventive measure. Meanwhile, the preventive measures practices if they develop symptoms of COVID-19 range from 89.8% to 99.7% and for the perception, it ranges from 85.5% to 98.9%. <br><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There are also still some lower components perceptions and practices than expected. Additional education intervention and campaigns are required to provide the Ministry of health staffs with adequate knowledge towards COVID-19 clinical presentation, general knowledge and transmission route of COVID-19, and to increase the perception and practice on some perceptions and practices of the preventive measures.<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> COVID-19 -Ministry of Health Malaysia health care workers-knowledge-perception-practice</p> Halizah Mat Rifin, Shubash Shander Ganapathy, Wan Shakira Rodzlan Hasani, Komathi Perialathan, Manimaran Krishnan Kaundan, Noor Ani Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 26 Mar 2021 12:02:42 +0800 Smartphone Apps as a Technological Innovation for Weight Reduction: A Systematic Review & Meta-analysis <p><strong>Purpose</strong> <strong>-</strong> The new technological innovation can have a vast potential for interventions to help weight loss and combat obesity. The current meta-analysis aimed to compare the effectiveness of smartphone applications (apps) with other methods for promoting weight loss.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology</strong> - PubMed, Ovid and Science Direct were searched from 2014 all-inclusive up to May 2019 for relevant studies that assessed any smartphone/mobile phone app intervention with anthropometric measurement. Statistical analysis performed to examine mean difference (95% CI) of body weight, body mass index and waist circumference. Six articles were included for meta-analysis.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong> - According to the results, compared with conventional or other interventions, smartphone app interventions showed statistically non-significant decreases in body weight, body mass index and waist circumference. Intervention through smartphone apps alone does not produce substantial evidence of weight loss, even though they might be useful for specific groups. There remain prospects to explore regarding the use of smartphone apps in combination with other approaches to aid and promote weight loss, as smartphone use has been proven to influence health-related behavioral modification.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong> BMI, Mobile phone apps, Smartphone app, Weight loss</p> Azmawati Mohammed Nawi, Muhammad Faiz Mohd Ishak, Noor Hazmi Noor Hassim, Safirah Jaan Jaafari, Qistina Mohd Ghazali, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Norfazilah Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 29 Mar 2021 12:49:22 +0800 Tokamachi, Niigata, Japan Experience Sharing on Preparation Towards Active Ageing, 2020 <p>As the year 2020 marked a significant milestone to our country with regards to our vision to become a developed country, the UKM-Niigata Univeristy “Exchange Program &amp; Seminar on Program for Enhancing Health Policies for Healthy and Active Aging In-Comparison Between Malaysia &amp; Japan” was suitably conducted. The MOU between UKM-NU (Niigata University) since year 2009 has opened plenty of opportunities for various fruitful collaborations in terms of knowledge, research and experience sharing between both countries. This round, the opportunity was offered to two post graduate DrPH (Doctor of Public Health) students, together with professors, associate professors and senior officers from Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, UKM, Faculty of Medicine &amp; Health Sciences UMS and UPM, MyAgeing UPM and Cheras District Health Office. The Malaysian delegation was led by Associate Professor Dr. Mohd Rohaizat bin Hassan, who himself attained the PhD degree from Niigata University and has ushered in many opportunistic networking and good collaborations between both countries / universities.</p> Wong Chin Mun, Diana Safraa Selimin, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Rozita Hod, Azmawati Mohammed Nawi, Norfazilah Ahmad, Mohammad Safree Jafree, Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim, Tg Aizan Hamid, Zemberi Sekawi, Norhaslira Abdul Rahim, Noriah Hajib ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 12 Mar 2021 11:46:27 +0800 Sakura Science Program 2018: Mendalami Pengalaman Program dan Polisi Berkaitan Penuaan Aktif dan Sihat di Negara Matahari Terbit <p><strong>NAMA AKTIVITI</strong></p> <p>Sakura Science Program - Program Sangkutan &amp; Pertukaran Pelajar Pasca Siswazah UKM-Niigata Universiti</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>PENGANJUR BERSAMA</strong></p> <p>International Health Division (Public Health), Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Japan</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>TARIKH</strong></p> <p>19/01/2018 - 31/01/2018</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>TEMPAT</strong></p> <p>International Health Division (Public Health), Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Japan</p> Siti Nor Mat, Norzaher Ismail, Syafik Taib, Suliana Mohd Shuib, Massitah Mihat, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 12 Mar 2021 14:48:31 +0800 Personal Protective Equipment: Strategizing the armour of the knight battling COVID-19 <p>The first coronavirus disease 2019(Covid-19) in Malaysia was first detected on the 25<sup>th</sup> of January 2020. Numbers remained low until March where local clusters began to sprout.<sup>1</sup> This rapid rise was alarming to the Ministry of Health Malaysia (MOH) and Movement Control Order (MCO) was declared on the 18<sup>th</sup> of March 2020 to flatten the curve.<sup>2 </sup>&nbsp;As Malaysia enters her fourth phase of MCO, she has over six thousand cases of COVID-19 with over a hundred fatalities. Efforts within the MCO entails social distancing, increasing testing capacity and isolation. This combination of measures led to Malaysia being recognised to have one of the lowest death rate and highest recovery rate exceeding 50% of total cases.<sup>3</sup></p> Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Levin Kesu Belani, Hardip Singh Gendeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Mar 2021 19:09:07 +0800