Cover Image

Preparation of Polyurethane Composites with Activated Carbon Black as the Reinforcing Filler

Lai Wei Xiong, Khairiah Badri


The effect of activated carbon black (ACB) on the mechanical properties of palm-based polyurethane composites was studied. Palm-based multi-block polyurethane (PU) was prepared by reacting palm kernel oil-based (PKO-p) monoester with 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate (MDI) through prepolymerization method. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was used as the chain extender while acetone was used as the solvent to control the reaction kinetics. The amount of ACB added into the PU system was varied at 0 to 8 wt% (percentage by weight). This study aimed to develop a formulation of PU-ACB composite film with excellent mechanical properties. The mechanical characterizations included tensile test, hardness test, and scratch resistance test. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was also conducted to identify the functional groups present in the PU composites. The incorporation of ACB as filler greatly enhanced the mechanical properties of the PU composites due to compatibility and interfacial adhesion of ACB with PU matrix. The loading of ACB at 8 wt% exhibited the optimum mechanical properties.


Biopolymer; composite film; multi-block polyurethane; prepolymerization

Full Text:



Khairiah Haji Badri. 2012. Chapter 20: Biobased Polyurethane From Palm Kernel Oil-Based Polyol. Zafar, F. and Sharmin, E. 2012. Eds. Polyurethanes, ISBN 978-953-51-0726-2, New York: InTech Publication, pp 447-470

Daud FN, Ahmad A, Haji Badri K. An investigation on the properties of palm-based polyurethane solid polymer electrolyte. Int J Polym Sci. 2014;2014: Article ID 326716,

Wong CS, Badri KH. Chemical Analyses of Palm Kernel Oil-Based Polyurethane Prepolymer. Mater Sci Appl [Internet]. 2012;3(2):78–86.

Praveen S, Chattopadhyay PK, Albert P, Dalvi VG, Chakraborty BC, Chattopadhyay S. Synergistic effect of carbon black and nanoclay fillers in styrene butadiene rubber matrix: Development of dual structure. Compos Part A Appl Sci Manuf [Internet]. 2009;40(3):309–316.

Hu Z, Srinivasan MP. Mesoporous high-surface-area activated carbon. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 2001;43(3):267–275.

Adinata D, Wan Daud WMA, Aroua MK. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from palm shell by chemical activation with K2CO3. Bioresour Technol. 2007;98(1):145–149.

Li L. Effects of Activated Carbon Surface Chemistry and Pore Structure on the Adsorption of Trace Organic Contaminants from Aqueous Solution. North Carolina State University; 2002.

Abdul Khalil HPS, Firoozian P, Bakare IO, Akil HM, Noor AM. Exploring biomass based carbon black as filler in epoxy composites: Flexural and thermal properties. Mater Des [Internet]. 2010;31(7):3419–3425.

Sahoo NG, Jung YC, Yoo HJ, Cho JW. Effect of functionalized carbon nanotubes on molecular interaction and properties of polyurethane composites. Macromol Chem Phys. 2006;207(19):1773–1780.

Oprea, S. 2008. Effects of fillers on polyurethane resin-based polyurethane elastomeric bearing materials for passive isolation. Journal of Composite Materials 42(25): 2673–2685.


  • There are currently no refbacks.