BORNEO ROCK ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY: REVIEW ON ROCK ART PERSPECTIVES ON BORNEAN “NEOLITHIC” (LUKISAN GUA DAN ARKEOLOGI BORNEO: KAJIAN SEMULA KE ATAS LUKISAN GUA DARIPADA PERSPEKTIF ZAMAN NEOLITIK DI BORNEO)

Irfan Ullah, Mokhtar Saidin, Nasha Rodziadi Khaw

Abstract


Abstract


Borneo is the world’s third-largest island, divided between the geopolitics of Malaysia, the Sultanate of Brunei and Indonesia. This review expands multiple strains of evidence indicating Borneo is important to understanding the Southeast Asian “Neolithic”. This study uses rock art as a substitution to track human movement on Borneo during the poorly understood “Neolithic” peopling of Island Southeast Asia, c. 6000 - 2000 ka. Rock art is a neglected archaeological data source in Southeast Asian archaeology, and Borneo’s rock art holds great potential for studying modern human movement and symbolic behaviour. It evaluates the Borneo presence of two diagnostically “Neolithic” rock art traditions found elsewhere in Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific: The Austronesian Painting Tradition (APT) and Austronesian Engraving Style (AES). Multiple synchronic and diachronic rock art practices are described, including a distinctly Borneo version of the APT and a single instance of the AES that expand our understanding of the Borneo and Southeast Asian archaeological narratives.

Keywords: Borneo, Rock art, Austronesian Painting Tradition (APT), Austronesian Engraving Style (AES).


Abstrak


Borneo adalah pulau ketiga terbesar di dunia, dibahagikan kepada geopolitik Malaysia, Kesultanan Brunei dan Indonesia. Kajian ini mengembangkan pelbagai bukti yang menunjukkan Borneo adalah penting untuk memahami "Neolitik" Asia Tenggara. Kajian ini menggunakan seni batu sebagai pengganti untuk mengesan pergerakan manusia di Borneo ketika penduduk Neolitik yang kurang memahami Pulau Asia Tenggara, c. 6000 - 2000 ka. Seni batu adalah sumber data arkeologi yang diabaikan di arkeologi Asia Tenggara, dan seni batu Borneo memegang potensi besar untuk mempelajari gerakan manusia moden dan tingkah laku simbolik. Ia menilai kehadiran Borneo sebagai dua tradisi seni batu "Neolitik" diagnostik yang ditemui di tempat lain di Pulau Asia Tenggara dan Pasifik: Tradisi Lukisan Austronesia (APT) dan Ciri Ukiran Austronesian (AES). Amalan seni batu sintetik dan diakronik yang banyak telah diterangkan, termasuk versi Borneo APT yang jelas dan satu contoh AES yang mengembangkan pemahaman kita tentang kisah-khazanah arkeologi Borneo dan Asia Tenggara.

Kata Kunci: Borneo, Lukisan batu, Tradisi Lukisan Austronesia, Ciri Ukiran Austronesia.


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