Tuberculosis Contact Tracing In Low- And Middle- Income Countries: A Systematic Review
Keywords:tuberculosis, contact tracing, screening, systematic review, low and middle income countries
IntroductionÂ Â Â Â Â Â Tuberculosis (TB) a major global health challenge especially in low- and middle-income countries reflects improper, delayed or missed diagnosis. Contact screening should be utilized both as an efficient and effective targeted approach to intensify TB case finding.
MethodsÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Through a comprehensive systematic literature review of online database, this paper aims at providing an insight into the current practice of TB contact screening and to provide evidence based practice for formulation of appropriate policies in low- and middle-income countries. There are 24 articles included in this review from studies published from 2005 to 2014.
Results Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Findings in literature varies substantially. Generally, contact screening is better intensified with clear operational guidelines, adequate training, include close contact outside household as appropriate and follow up at least for 1 year. Prioritizing high risk close contacts is helpful in resource limited setting. Tuberculin skin test is still of value as screening tool and intensified case finding must be accompanied with effective management protocol. Prophylaxis treatment is recommended especially for children especially less than 5 years old, unvaccinated, malnourished, living with person having HIV and close contact with MDR-TB.
ConclusionÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Policy recommendations in improving TB management must incorporate complementary strategies to enhance case finding, effective management protocol for follow up or prophylaxis treatment, training for public health capacity and concerted dedication from various stakeholders.
World Health Organization. Tuberculosis. Fact Sheet No.104. 2012. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. Global Tuberculosis Control: Who Report 2011.2011. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. Recommendations for Investigating Contacts of Persons with Infectious Tuberculosis in Low-and Middle-Income Countries. 2012. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Tulu B, Dida N, Kassa Y et al. Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Its Risk Factors among Tuberculosis Suspect in South East Ethiopia; A Hospital Based Cross-Sectional Study. BMC Research Notes.2014;7(1):285.
Steffen RE, Caetano R, Pinto M et al. Cost-Effectiveness of QuantiferonÂ®-Tb Gold-in-Tube Versus Tuberculin Skin Testing for Contact Screening and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Brazil. PLoS One 2013;8(4):e59546.
Zhang X, Wei X, Zou G et al. Evaluation of Active Tuberculosis Case Finding through Symptom Screening and Sputum Microscopy of Close Contacts in Shandong, China. Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16(12):1511-17.
Fortunato I, Sant'anna C. Screening and Follow-up of Children Exposed to Tuberculosis Cases, Luanda, Angola. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011;15 (10):1359-1361.
Crampin A, Kasimba S, Mwaungulu N et al. Married to M. Tuberculosis: Risk of Infection and Disease in Spouses of Smearâ€Positive Tuberculosis Patients. Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16(7):811-18.
Bakir M, Millington KA, Soysal A et al. Prognostic Value of a T-Cellâ€“Based, Interferon-Î“ Biomarker in Children with Tuberculosis Contact. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149 (11):777-86.
Becerra MC, Franke MF, Appleton SC et al. Tuberculosis in Children Exposed at Home to Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. The Pediatric Infect Dis J. 2013;32(2):115-19.
Lewinsohn DA, Zalwango S, Stein CM et al. Whole Blood Interferon-Gamma Responses to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Antigens in Young Household Contacts of Persons with Tuberculosis in Uganda. PLoS One. 2008;3(10):e3407.
Mandalakas AM, Hesseling AC, Gie RP et al. Modelling the Cost-Effectiveness of Strategies to Prevent Tuberculosis in Child Contacts in a High-Burden Setting. Thorax. 2013;68(3):247-55.
Pai M, Dendukuri N, Wang L et al. Improving the Estimation of Tuberculosis Infection Prevalence Using T-Cell-Based Assay and Mixture Models. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease: Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12(8):895.
Sinfield R, Nyirenda M, Haves S et al. Risk Factors for Tb Infection and Disease in Young Childhood Contacts in Malawi. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2006;26(3):205-13.
Singh M, Mynak M, Kumar L et al. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Transmission of Infection among Children in Household Contact with Adults Having Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Arch Dis Child. 2005;90(6):624-28.
Nguyen TH, Odermatt P, Slesak G et al. Risk of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Children Living in Households with Tuberculosis Patients: A Cross Sectional Survey in Remote Northern Lao People's Democratic Republic. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9(1):96.
Thind D, Charalambous S, Tongman A et al. An Evaluation of â€˜Ribololaâ€™: A Household Tuberculosis Contact Tracing Programme in North West Province, South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2012;16(12): 1643-48.
Jones-LÃ³pez EC, Kim S, Fregona G et al. Importance of Cough and M. Tuberculosis Strain Type as Risks for Increased Transmission within Households. PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e100984.
Ma N, Zalwango S, Malone LL et al. Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Individuals Resistant to M. Tuberculosis Infection in a Longitudinal TB Household Contact Study in Kampala, Uganda. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14(1):352.
Kranzer K, Houben, RM, Glynn JR et al. Yield of Hiv-Associated Tuberculosis During Intensified Case Finding in Resource-Limited Settings: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010;10(2):93-102.
Van Der Spuy G, Warren R, Van Helden P. The Role of Molecular Epidemiology in Low-Income, High-Burden Countries. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009;13(4):419-20.
Wu N, Lin Y, Dai Z. Age and Sex Distribution Trend of New Smear Positive TB Patients in Fujian Province (2005â€“2007). Chinese Primary Care. 2009;23:55-56.
LÃ¶nnroth K, Jaramillo E, Williams B et al. Tuberculosis: The Role of Risk Factors and Social Determinants. Equity, Social determinants and Public Health Programmes. 2010. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Morrison J, Pai M, Hopewell PC. Tuberculosis and Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Close Contacts of People with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8(6):359-368.
Fair E, Morrison J, Pai M et al. Hopewell P. Review and Policy Recommendations for Investigation of Contacts of Persons with Infectious Tuberculosis in High Incidence Areas. Draft for Stop TB Department. 2009. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Australasian Contact Tracing Manual. 4th Ed. 2010. Darlinghust, NSW: Australasian Society for HIV Medicine.
Thanh THT, Dinh SN, Nguyen NV et al. A Household Survey on Screening Practices of Household Contacts of Smear Positive Tuberculosis Patients in Vietnam. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):713.
World Health Organization. Guidance for National Tuberculosis Programmes on the Management of Tuberculosis in Children. 2014. Geneva: World Health Organization.
TB-Care-I. International Standards for Tuberculosis Care. 3rd Ed. 2014. The Hague: United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
Jia Z, Cheng S, Ma Y et al. Tuberculosis Burden in China: A High Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Household Contacts with and without Symptoms. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14(1):64.
Del Corral H, ParÃs SC, MarÃn ND et al. IfnÎ³ Response to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Risk of Infection and Disease in Household Contacts of Tuberculosis Patients in Colombia. PLoS One. 2009;4(12): e8257.
Khan T, Ahmed Z, Zafar M et al. Active Case Finding of Sputum Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Household Contacts of Tuberculosis Patients in Karachi, Pakistan. J Assoc Chest Physicians. 2014;2(1):25.
Liu E, Cheng S, Wang X et al. A Systematic Review of the Investigation and Management of Close Contacts of Tuberculosis in China. J Public Health. 2010;2 (4):461-66.
Singh S, Singh J, Kumar S et al. Poor Performance of Serological Tests in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Evidence from a Contact Tracing Field Study. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40213.
Pai M, Joshi R, Dogra S et al. T-Cell Assay Conversions and Reversions among Household Contacts of Tuberculosis Patients in Rural India. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009;13(1):84.
Hill PC, Jackson-Sillah DJ, Fox A et al. Incidence of Tuberculosis and the Predictive Value of Elispot and Mantoux Tests in Gambian Case Contacts. PLoS One. 2008;(1):e1379.
Lienhardt C, Fielding K, Hane AA et al. Evaluation of the Prognostic Value of Ifn-Î“ Release Assay and Tuberculin Skin Test in Household Contacts of Infectious Tuberculosis Cases in Senegal. PLoS One .2010;5(5):e10508.
Rutherford M, Hill P, Maharani W et al. Risk Factors for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection in Indonesian Children Living with a Sputum Smear-Positive Case. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2012;16(12):1594-99.
Van Halsema CL, Fielding KL, Chihota VN et al. Tuberculosis Outcomes and Drug Susceptibility in Individuals Exposed to Isoniazid Preventive Therapy in a High HIV Prevalence Setting. Aids. 2010;24(7):1051-55.