Lifestyle Practices and Its Influence on Quality Of Life among Breast Cancer Survivors
Keywords:Lifestyle practices - quality of life - breast cancer survivors.
Breast cancer is ranked number one from the ten most frequent cancers in female, Peninsular Malaysia. Various studies provide negative evidence on malignancies and one of the end results is impaired quality of life (QOL). Studies show lifestyle approaches are key factors in enhancing the QOL among cancer survivors. The purpose of this study is to describe the lifestyle practices (LP) among breast cancer survivors (BCS) which consist of dietary intake, exercise habits, and stress management and to determine whether these practices have influence on the QOL among Malaysian BCS.
This study adopts a cross-sectional study design using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 280 BCS from public and private hospitals throughout Peninsular Malaysia had participated. The questionnaire covers QOL and LP items which consist of dietary intake (consumption of high-fat food, high-fibre food, fruits and vegetables), exercise habits, and stress management. Descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA were used to determine the relationship between LP and QOL.
Mean age of the study sample was at 41 (SD=7.37). Majority of them were Malay (74%), 53% were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1 to 2 years whereas 54% were presented with stage 2 at diagnosis. There was a statistically significant difference (p<.05) in the overall quality of life score for the three LP groups (Better, No change, Worse).
Malaysiansâ€™ BCS reported an improvement in LP and the enhancement in LP may result to better QOL outcomes.
Lerman R, Jarski R, Rea H, Gellish R, Vicini F. Improving symptoms and quality of life of female cancer survivors: a randomized controlled study. Ann Surg Oncol. 2012; 19: 373-378.
Carlson CA, Hobbie WL, Brogna M, Ginsberg JP. A multidisciplinary model of care for childhood cancer survivors with complex medical needs. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing. 2008; 25: 7-13.
Malaysian cancer statistics data and figure Peninsular Malaysia 2006. National Cancer Registry, Ministry of Health Malaysia; 2006.
Malaysian cancer statistics data and figure Peninsular Malaysia 2007. National Cancer Registry, Ministry of Health Malaysia; 2007.
Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. Ca Cancer J Clin. 2011; 61:69â€“90.
Jacobsen PB, Jim HSL. Consideration of quality of life in cancer survivorship research. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011; 20:2035-2041.
Chopra I, Kamal KM. A systematic review of quality of life instruments in long-term breast cancer survivors. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2012; 10:14.
Ibrahim NI, Dahlui M, Aina EN, Al-Sadat N. Who are the breast cancer survivors in Malaysia? Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2012; 13: 2213-2218.
Maddams J, Brewster D, Gavin A, Steward J, Elliott J, Utley M, Moller H. Cancer prevalence in the United Kingdom: estimates for 2008. Br J Cancer. 2009; 101(3):541-7.
Kim SH, Yun YH. Associations between health behaviors and health-related quality of life among breast cancer survivors. Asian Oncol Nurs. 2012; 1: 12-19.
Brearley SG, Stamataki Z, Addington-Hall J, Foster C, Hodges L, Jarrett N, Richardson A, Scott I, Sharpe M, Stark D, Siller C, Zeigler L, Amir Z. The physical and practical problems experienced by cancer survivors: A rapid review and synthesis of the literature. European Journal of Oncology Nursing. 2011;15: 204â€“212.
Dizon DS. Quality of life after breast cancer: Survivorship and sexuality. The Breast Journal. 2009; 15: 500-504.
Feuerstein M., Luff GM, Harrington CB, Olsen CH. Pattern of workplace disputes in cancer survivors: A population study of ADA claims. Journal of Cancer Survivorship. 2007; 17: 185-192.
Magaji BA, Moy FM, Roslani AC, Sagap I, Zakaria J, Blazeby JM, Law CW. Health-related quality of life among colorectal cancer patients in Malaysia: a study protocol. BMC Cancer. 2012; 12: 384.
Grimmet C, Bridgewater J, Steptoe A, Wardle J. Lifestyle and quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors. Qual Life Res. 2011; 20:1237-1245.
Hanisah A, Omar K, Shah SA. Prevalence of acne and its impact on the quality of life in school-aged adolescents in Malaysia. J Primary Health Care. 2009; 1:20â€“25.
Ferrel BR, Grant M, Frunk B, Garcia N, Otis-Green S, Schaffner ML. Quality of life in breast cancer. Cancer Pract. 1996; 6: 331-340.
American cancer society guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention. American Cancer Society; 2012.
Pekmezi DW, Demark-Wahnefried W. Review article updated evidence in support of diet and exercise interventions in cancer survivors. Acta Oncologica. 2011; 50: 167â€“178.
Modul program promosi kesihatan: Aktiviti fizikal, makan secara sihat. Lembaga Promosi Kesihatan Malaysia, Ministry of Health Malaysia; 2011.
Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang A-G, Buchner A. G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods. 2007; 39: 175-191.
Brady MJ, Cella DF, Mo F, Bonomi HE, Tulsky DS, Lloyd SR, et al. Reliability and validity of the functional assessment of cancer therapy â€“ breast quality of life instrument. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1997; 15 (3): 974-986.
Rabin C, Pinto B. Cancer-related beliefs and health behavior change among cancer survivors and their first-degree relatives. Psycho-Oncology. 2006; 15 (8): 701 - 712.
Decarli, Mezzetti M, Vecchia LC. Population attributable risk for breast cancer: Diet, nutrition, and physical exercise. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2000; 92: 844-845.
Wolin KY, Colditz GA. Cancer and beyond: Healthy lifestyle choices for cancer survivors. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Advance. [cited 2013 March 1-2].
Chlebowski RT, Blackburn GL, Thomson CA, Nixon DW, Shapiro A, Hoy MK, et al. Dietary fat reduction and breast cancer outcome: interim efficacy results from the Womenâ€™s Intervention Nutrition Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006; 98: 1767â€“76.
Mohammadi S, Sulaiman S, Koon PB, Amani R, Hosseini SM. Impact of healthy eating practices and physical activity on quality of life among breast cancer survivors. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(1):481-7.
Demark-Wahnefried W, Pinto BM, Gritz ER. Promoting health and physical function among cancer survivors: potential for prevention and questions that remain. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2006; 24 (32): 5125-5131.
Liow TL. YB Datoâ€™ Sri Liow Tiong Lai, Malaysia Health Minister Draft Speech. Presented at the 10000 steps campaign launching ceremony and Ministry of Health Family Day. Putrajaya. 2009. www.moh.gov.my/attachments/335 0. [cited 2013 July 29].
Chen X, Zheng Y, Zheng W, Gu K, Chen Z, Lu W, Shu XO. The effect of regular exercise on quality of life among breast cancer survivors. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2009; 170:854â€“862.