Mental Well-Being Related To Lifestyle and Risky Behaviours in 18-25 Year Old: Evidence from North-East Scotland
Keywords:Mental well - being - Lifestyle - Risky behavior - young/emerging adults.
This study assesses the mental well-being of young adults (18-25 year olds), a recognized weight gain time period, in relation to self-reported weight, diet, physical activity and other risky lifestyle behaviours.
A questionnaire survey was conducted amongst young adults in the North-East of Scotland. Mental well-being was assessed using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. Demographic, diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, sexual relations and drug taking factors were investigated. Univariate analyses and generalised linear models explored the most informative factors with respect to mental well-being.
One thousand one hundred and thirteen young adults responded. Lower mental well-being scores were associated with being underweight, those suffering from obesity, snacking habits and for drug takers. Increased physical activity (PA) was linked with better mental well-being even if PA was not enjoyed. Improved mental well-being was also associated with having or having had a sexual partner. Education, smoking and alcohol provided no additional information.
This large cross community study utilised different factors altogether and consequently provides important information on emerging adults. The results indicate that adaptable behaviours (body weight, nutrition, exercise, personal relationships, attitudes towards drugs) affect mental well-being. Future interventions should consider these lifestyles and risky behaviours to promote not only future health but also positive mental health of this often neglected, vulnerable age group.
World Health Organization. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation (WHO Technical Report Series 894). 894, 1-253. 2000. [cited 2013 Nov 22] Available from: http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/obesity/WHO_TRS_894/en/index.html
The World Health Organisation Geneva. Promoting Mental Health; Concepts emerging evidence and practice. Summary Report. 2004. [cited 2013 Nov 22] Available from:http://www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/en/promoting_mhh.pdf.
Hafner-Holter S, Kopp M, Gunther V. [Effects of fitness training and yoga on well-being stress, social competence and body image]. [German]. Neuropsychiatrie.2009; 23(4):244-8.
Yang X, Telama R, Hirvensalo M, Hintsanen M, Hintsa T, Pulkki-Raback L et al. The benefits of sustained leisure-time physical activity on job strain. Occupational Medicine (Oxford). 2010; 60(5):369-75.
Kort-Butler LA, Hagewen KJ. School-based extracurricular activity involvement and adolescent self-esteem: a growth-curve analysis. Journal of Youth & Adolescence. 2011; 40(5):568-81.
Wyld B, Harrison A, Noakes M. The CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet Book 1: sociodemographic differences and impact on weight loss and well-being in Australia. Public Health Nutrition. 2010; 13(12):2105-10.
Luppino FS, de Wit LM, Bouvy PF, Stijnen T, Cuijpers P, Penninx BW et al. Overweight, obesity, and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. [Review] [65 refs]. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2010; 67(3):220-9.
Schmid K, Schonlebe J, Drexler H, Mueck-Weymann M. Associations between being overweight, variability in heart rate, and well-being in the young men. Cardiology in the Young. 2010;(1):54-59.
Carey MG, Al Zaiti SS, Dean GE, Sessanna L, Finnell DS. Sleep problems, depression, substance use, social bonding, and quality of life in professional firefighters. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 2011; 53(8):928-33.
McCarty CA, Kosterman R, Mason WA, McCauley E, Hawkins JD, Herrenkohl TI et al. Longitudinal associations among depression, obesity and alcohol use disorders in young adulthood. General Hospital Psychiatry. 2009 Oct; 31(5):442-50.
Davila EP, Zhao W, Byrne M, Hooper MW, Messiah A, Caban-Martinez A et al. Health-related quality of life and nicotine dependence, Florida 2007. American Journal of Health Behavior. 2011; 35(3):280-9.
Wallace C, Galloway T, McKetin R, Kelly E, Leary J. Methamphetamine use, dependence and treatment access in rural and regional North Coast of New South Wales, Australia. Drug & Alcohol Review. 2009; 28(6):592-9.
Heidmets L, Samm A, Sisask M, Kolves K, Aasvee K, Varnik A. Sexual behavior, depressive feelings, and suicidality among Estonian school children aged 13 to 15 years. Crisis: Journal of Crisis Intervention & Suicide. 2010; 31(3):128-36.
Poobalan AS, Aucott LS, Clarke A, Smith WC. Physical activity attitudes, intentions and behaviour among 18-25year olds: a mixed method study. BMC Public Health. 2012; 12:640.
Wallace LS, Buckworth J, Kirby TE, Sherman WM. Characteristics of Exercise Behavior among College Students: Application of Social Cognitive Theory to Predicting Stage of Change. Preventive Medicine. 2000; 31(5):494-505.
Caperchione CM, Duncan MJ, Mummery K, Steele R, Schofield G. Mediating relationship between body mass index and the direct measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour on physical activity intention'. Psychology, Health & Medicine. 2008; 13(2):168-179.
NHS Scotland. The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS). 28-7-2006. [cited 2013 Nov 22]. Available from:http://www.healthscotland.com/documents/1467.aspx.
Aucott L, McHardy S, Poobalan A, Smith W. Bias in self-reported heights and weights: The impact on BMI in surveys in adolescents and young adults. Obesity Facts. 2009; 11(supplement s2):72.
General Register Office for Scotland. Population Estimates by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2009. 28-8-2012. [cited 2013 Nov 22]. Available from http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/statistics/theme/population/estimates/special-area/simd.html.
Chief Medical Officers of England SWaNI. Start active, stay active: a report on physical activity from the four home countries' Chief Medical Officers. 11-7-2011. [cited 2013 Nov 22]. Available from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_128209;
Home Office. The Government's alcohol strategy. Command 8336, Session 2012. 5. 23-3-2012. The Stationery Office.[cited 2013 Nov 22]Available from: http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/cm83/8336/8336.asp
Hampshire A, Di Nicola K. What's worrying young Australians and where do they go for advice and support? Policy and practice implications for their well-being. Early intervention in psychiatry 5 Suppl 1:12-6, 2011.
McCrea RL, Berger YG, King MB. Body mass index and common mental disorders: exploring the shape of the association and its moderation by age, gender and education. International Journal of Obesity. 2012; 36(3):414-21.
Xu Q, Anderson D, Courtney M. A longitudinal study of the relationship between lifestyle and mental health among midlife and older women in Australia: findings from the Healthy Aging of Women Study. Health Care for Women International. 2010; 31(12):1082-96.
Wansink B, Cheney MM, Chan N. Exploring comfort food preferences across age and gender. Physiology & Behavior. 2003; 79(4-5):739-47.
Martin FP, Antille N, Rezzi S, Kochhar S. Everyday eating experiences of chocolate and non-chocolate snacks impact postprandial anxiety, energy and emotional states. Nutrients. 2012; 4(6):554-67.
Hyde AL, Maher JP, Elavsky S. Enhancing our understanding of physical activity and wellbeing with a lifespan perspective. International Journal of Wellbeing. 2013; 3(1):98-115.
Burris JL, Brechting EH, Salsman J, Carlson CR. Factors associated with the psychological well-being and distress of university students. Journal of American College Health. 2009 Apr; 57(5):536-43.
Molnar DS, Busseri MA, Perrier CP, Sadava SW. A longitudinal examination of alcohol use and subjective well-being in an undergraduate sample. Journal of Studies on Alcohol & Drugs. 2009; 70(5):704-13.
Barger SD, Donoho CJ, Wayment HA. The relative contributions of race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, health, and social relationships to life satisfaction in the United States. Quality of Life Research. 2009 18(2):179-89.