Biomarkers approach in the diagnosis and prognosis of sepsis: A review
Sepsis is a systematic host response to infection accompanied by suppression of immune system and organ failure. Rapid diagnosis of sepsis has prompted researchers to use circulating biomarkers for diagnosis sepsis.
The PubMed, and Google Scholar databases were searched from 2010 until 2020 using the keyorganis â€œsepsisâ€, â€œbiomarkerâ€, â€œpathophysiologyâ€, â€œpathogenesisâ€, and â€œdiagnoseâ€ with restriction by language to English. For each individual biomarker the databases were searched again by the biomarker name.
Although CRP and Procalcitonin are the most common biomarkers in the diagnosis of sepsis, other biomarkers such as pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, monocyte and lymphocyte biomarkers, antibody and nucleic acid biomarkers may help in diagnosis of sepsis.
The biomarkers verified capability in disease progress, prognosis of disorder, risk stratification, and treatment effect rather than diagnosis at early stage of sepsis. Defining molecular properties in septic patients opens up new means to diagnose and manage sepsis in a shorter time compared to conventional methods currently used at hospitals however further clinical evaluation of biomarkers should be performed.
Keywords. Sepsis. Biomarkers. Prognosis. Diagnosis