Housing and Indoor Factor Influencing Spread of COVID-19


  • Hakimah Yusop Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia


Housing, Indoor, Transmission, Fomite, COVID-19, Infectious Disease


There has been growing recognition linking spread of COVID-19 with environmental factors. One of the environmental factors with robust epidemiological literature supporting its role in diseases is the housing or built environment. COVID-19 spread has been found to occur mostly at homes through secondary household transmission. As most people spend more times inside homes during the pandemic, household remains an important site of COVID-19 spread. The aim of this study is to examine how housing and indoor factors affect the transmission and spread of COVID-19. This article summarizes the housing indoor factors involved in COVID-19 transmission, including the role of transmission from contaminated household surfaces. Indoor transmission of COVID-19 is found to be more likely due to contact transmission and close-contact aerosol transmission in a crowded, confined, and poorly ventilated indoor environment, related to poor housing condition. Whilst role of spread through contaminated household surfaces is of low probability. Based on this review, it can be suggested that besides the existing measures including avoiding crowding, close contacts and proper ventilation, specific standards for indoor environmental quality control and housing condition might be required. Housing is a public health issue and healthy housing is of universal concern.




How to Cite

Yusop, H., & Wan Puteh, S. E. (2023). Housing and Indoor Factor Influencing Spread of COVID-19. International Journal of Public Health Research, 13(2). Retrieved from https://spaj.ukm.my/ijphr/index.php/ijphr/article/view/424