Cover Image

Preparation and Property Analysis of Biodegradable Packaging Film from Alginate, Starch and Citric acid

Nazia Rahman, Nirmal Dafader, Parvin Banu


In the present study alginate-starch blend films (thickness 0.08 mm) of different composition were prepared by casting and their mechanical properties were studied. Highest tensile strength was obtained for alginate: starch = 4: 1 of 70 MPa. To impart antimicrobial property to the alginate-starch films, citric acid of different composition was used and CaCl2 treatment of this film was performed to improve the stability of the films in water. Then the films were further modified with monomer, methylacrylate (MA) and gamma radiation. The blend films were soaked in different formulations of methylacrylate (MA), in methanol and then irradiated by gamma radiation. Mechanical properties of the modified films such as tensile strength and elongation at break were studied. Thermal properties of films were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The structural and morphological features of films were investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).


Biodegradable film; starch; alginate; citric acid; gamma radiation.

Full Text:



Salmieri S, Lacroix M (2006) Physicochemical properties of alginate/polycaprolactone-based films containing essential oils. J Agric Food Chem 54:10205-10214.

Rooney M L (1995) Overview of active food packaging. Rooney Chapman and Hall, London.

Suppakul P, Miltz J, Sonneveld K, Bigger SW (2003) Active packaging technologies with an emphasis on antimicrobial packaging and its applications. J Food Sci 68:408–420.

Tien CL, Letendre M, Ispas SP, Mateescu MA, Delmas PG, Yu IL, Lacroix M (2000) Development of biodegradable films from whey proteins by cross–linking and entrapment in cellulose. J Agric Food Chem 48:5566–5575.

Ciesla K, Salmieri S, Lacroix M (2006) γ-Irradiation influence on the structure and properties of calcium caseinate–whey protein isolate based films. Part 2. Influence of polysaccharide addition and radiation treatment on the structure and functional properties of films. J Agric Food Chem 54:8899–8908.

Rubio MR, Ghaly ES (1994) In vitro release of acetaminophen from sodium alginate controlled release pellets. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 20: 1239-1251.

Al-Musa S, Abu Fara D, Badwan AA (1999) Evaluation of parameters involved in preparation and release of drug loaded in crosslinked matrices of alginate. J Control Release, 57: 223-232.

Yotsuyanagi T, Yoshioka, I, Segi N, Ikeda K (1991) Acid-induced and calcium induced gelation of alginic acid: Bead formation and pH dependent swelling. Chem Pharm Bull 39: 1072-1074.

Donati I, Holtan S, Mørch YA, Borgogna M, Dentini M (2005) New hypothesis on the role of alternating sequences in calcium−alginate gels. Biomacromolecules 6: 1031-1040.

Dong Z, Wang Q, Du Y (2006) Alginate/gelatin blend films and their properties for drug controlled release. J Membr Sci 280: 37-44.

King AH (1982) In: M. Glicksman (ed) Brown seaweed extracts (alginates)., FL: CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Rhim JW (2004) Physical and mechanical properties of water resistant sodium alginate films. Lebensm Wiss Technol 37: 323-330.

Grant GT, Morris ER, Rees DA, Smith PJC (1973) Biological interactions between polysaccharides and divalent cations: The egg-box model. FEBS Letters 32: 195-198.

Braccini I, Pérez S (2001) Molecular basis of Ca2+-induced gelation in alginates and pectins: the eggbox model revisited. Biomacromolecules 2: 1089-1096.

Fang Y, Al-Assaf S, Phillips GO, Nishinari K, Funami T, Williams PA (2008) Binding behavior of calcium to polyuronates: Comparison of pectin with alginate. Carbohydr Polym 72: 334-341.

Olivas GI, Barbosa-Cánovas GV (2008) Alginatecalcium films: Water vapor permeability and mechanical properties as affected by plasticizer and relative humidity. LWT Food Sci Technol 41: 359-366.

Mali S, Grossmann MVE (2003) Effects of yam starch films on storability and quality of fresh strawberries (Fragaria ananassa). J Agric Food Chem 51: 7005-7011.

Famá L, Rojas AM, Goyanes S, Gerschenson L (2005) Mechanical properties of tapioca-starch edible films containing sorbates. LWT Food Sci Technol 38: 631-639.

Zhou YG, Wang, LJ, Li D, Yan PY, Li Y, Shi J, Chen XD, Mao JH (2009) Effect of sucrose on dynamic mechanical characteristics of maize and potato starch films. Carbohydr Polym 76: 239-243.

Rindlav-Westling A, Stading M, Hermansson AM, Gatenholm P (1998) Structure, mechanical and barrier properties of amylose and amylopectin films. Carbohydr Polym 36: 217-224.

In, YW, Kim JJ, Kim HJ, Oh SW (2013) Antimicrobial Activities of Acetic Acid, Citric Acid and Lactic Acid against ShigellaSpecies. J Food Safety 33: 79-85.

Fazilah A, Maizura M, Abd Karim A, Bhupinder K, Rajeev B, Uthumporn U, Chew SH (2011) Physical and mechanical properties of sago starch – alginate films incorporated with calcium chloride, Int Food Res J 18: 1027-1033.

Işıklan N, Kurşun M, İnal M (2010) Graft copolymerization of itaconic acid onto sodium alginate using benzoyl peroxide, Carbohydr Polym 79: 665–672.

Dafader NC, Rahman W, Sumi SA (2017) Breakthrough in the preparation of irradiated sodium alginate/polyethylene oxide blend films using methacrylate monomer, Int J Polym Anal Ch. 22: 152-159.

Trimnell D, Fanta GF, Salch JH (1996) Graft polymerization of methyl acrylate onto granular starch: Comparison of the Fe+2/H2O2and ceric initiating systems, J appl Polym Sci 60: 285-292.

Parvathy PC, Jyothi AN (2012) Synthesis, characterization and swelling behaviour of superabsorbent polymers from cassava starch-graft-poly(acrylamide). Starch, 64: 207-218.

Ghosal S, Khan MA, Noor FG, Khan RA (2009) Gamma radiation induced biodegradable shellac films treated by acrylic monomer and ethylene glycol. J Macromol Sci Part A:Pure appl Chem. 46: 975-982.

Rui S, Jingliang B, Zizheng Z, Aichen Z, Dafu C, Xinhua Z, Liqun Z, Wei T (2008) The effect of citric acid on the structural properties and cytotoxicity of the polyvinyl alcohol/starch films when molding at high temperature. Carbohydr Polym 74: 763–770.

Grant G T, Morris ER, Rees DA, Smith PJC (1973) Biological interactions between polysaccharides and divalent cations: The egg-box model. FEBS Letters 32: 195-198.

Khan M A, Rahman MA, Khan RA, Rahman N, Islam JMM, Alam R, Mondal MIH (2010) Preparation and characterization of the mechanical properties of the photocured chitosan/starch Blend Film. Polym Plast Technol Eng 49: 748–756.

Alam R, Khan MA, Khan RA, Ghoshal S, Mondal MIH (2008) Study on the physico-mechanical properties of photo-cured chitosan films with oligomer and acrylate monomer. J Polym Environ 16: 213–219.

Nunthanid J, Puttipipatkhachorn S, Yamamoto K, Peck GE (2001) Physical properties and molecular behavior of chitosan films. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 27: 143–157.

Khan MA, Khan RA, Noor FG, Rahman MM, Alam MN (2009) Studies on the mechanical properties of gelatin and its blends with vinyltrimethoxysilane: Effect of gamma radiation. Polym Plast Technol Eng 48: 813–818.

Ghoshal S, Khan MA, Noor FG, Khan RA (2009) Gamma radiation induced biodegradable shellac films treated by acrylic monomer and ethylene glycol. J Macromol Sci Chem Part. A. 46: 975–982.

Rahman N, Khan MA, Khan RA, Chowdhury TA (2011) Modification of Gelatin Films Using Trimethylolpropane Trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) by Photo-Curing, Polym Plast Technol Eng 50: 404–411.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Call for Submissions

We welcome submissions for the coming issue that will be officially published in March 2022. We are committed to providing results of reviewing within two weeks, and publishing the paper within one month from the submission date (subjected to responses by authors). This means accepted papers will be available online even before the issue is published officially.

Publons Partners

Journal of Polymer Science and Technology (JPST) is now one of Publons Partners. This means biodata of reviewers in Publons will be automatically updated once reviewing on articles submitted to JPST is completed (subjected to terms and conditions).

How to promote journal articles

Promoting your journal article is imperative to maximise the exposure, enhance the discoverability and increase engagement with readers and other academics. Together with the publisher, as an author, you can help to promote your newly published articles via the following:

1) Institutional webpage.
Provide the link of your latest article in your institutional website. The webpage visitors who view your profile will be able to see your latest research and publications.

2) Social media.
The rise of the social media has also profoundly affected the publishing fraternity. More and more users have chosen the social media platforms as a way of sharing. Social media sharing helps foster convenient dissemination of information, which can be achieved within a short time. You can share your article in major online social media platforms including Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and so on.

3) Utilise scholarly networking and reference platforms.
A scholarly or academic networking platforms such as, MyNetResearch, ResearchGate, Mendeley and so on are indeed useful as they help bring scholars of common areas of expertise close together.

4) Press Releases.
If your article involves a new, significant or important discovery, consider linking up with media organisations for a press release. This brings your work to the mainstream media.

5) Blog.
If you keep a personal blog, you can get your blog readers updated with the list of your most recently published articles and the development in your area of research. Linking your article in your personal blog can vastly enhance the discoverability. Discuss briefly about the article and how the users might benefit from it.

6) Add to reading list or assignment.
Add your article (or the journal your article is published) as essential reading to your students. You may also create related assignments, e.g. review of the article, or have them discussed about the write up in class.

7) Add to your signature.
Announce your latest publication underneath your signature. Provide a link where the article can be downloaded/viewed.