Cover Image

Properties of graphene nano-filler reinforced epoxidized natural rubber composites

Siti Salina Sarkawi, Azira Abdul Aziz, Ahmad Kifli Che Aziz, Rohaidah Abd Rahim, Nik Intan Nik Ismail


Reinforcement of filled rubber is governed by the rubber-to-filler interactions at nano-scale. One of the potential nano-reinforcing fillers is graphene. Dispersing nano-filler into rubber matrix still remains a challenge despite many methods reported. This paper presents an investigation on the graphene nano-fillers reinforcement in natural rubber and epoxidized natural rubber. The effect of graphene dispersion on the filler-to-rubber and filler-to-filler interactions in carbon black- and silica-filled composite system is evaluated. The rheological, Payne effect and dynamic properties of graphene nano-filler natural rubber composite are presented. The presence of graphene reduces the Payne effect of epoxidized natural rubber-silica composite resulting from better dispersion of silica fillers. In addition, the physically bound rubber of epoxidized natural rubber-silica is increased with the addition of graphene indicating better rubber-to-filler interactions. The effect of graphene is more pronounced in modified natural rubber and silica system due to higher interaction of graphene with silica and epoxidized natural rubber.


graphene; nano; filler; silica; natural rubber

Full Text:



John G. S, Engineered Rubber Products, Hanser Publications, Munich, (2009) 123 – 164.

M. Bhattacharya, Polymer Nanocomposites — A Comparison between, Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene, and Clay as Nanofillers, Materials, (2016) 262(9): 1-35.

V. Singh, D. Joung, L. Zhai, S. Das, S.I. Khondaker and S. Seal, Graphene based materials: Past, present and future, Progress Mat. Sci, (2011) 56:1178-1271.

T. Kuilla, S. Bhadra, D. Yao, N. H.. Kim, S. Bose and J. Hee Lee, Recent Advances in Graphene Based Polymer Composites, Prog. Polym. Sci., (2010) 35:1350-1375.

Y. B. Liu, L. Li, and Q. Wang, Reinforcement of Natural Rubber with Carbon Black/Nanoclay Hybrid Filler, Plast. Rubb. Comp., (2010) 39 (8):370–376.

N. Rattanasom, T. Saowapark, and C. Deeprasertkul, Reinforcement of natural rubber with silica/carbon black hybrid filler, Polym. Testing., (2007) 26: 369–377.

N. I. Nik Ismail, A. Ansarifar, and M. Song, Effect of hybrid reinforcement based on precipitated silica and montmorillonite nanofillers on the mechanical properties of a silicone rubber, Polym. Eng. Sci., (2013) 54 (8):1909-1921.

I.R Gelling and M. Porter, Chemical Modification of Natural Rubber, in: A.D. Roberts (Ed.) Natural Rubber Science and Technology, Oxford University Press, New York, (1988): 359-456.

C.S.L. Baker, I.R. Gelling, and A.B. Samsuri, Epoxidised Natural Rubber, J. Nat. Rubb. Res., (1986) 1(2): 135-144.

I.R. Gelling, Epoxidised Natural Rubber, J. Nat. Rubb. Res., (1991) 6(3):184-205.

S.S. Sarkawi and C.S. Mt Saad, Reinforcement of Epoxidised Natural Rubber by Precipitated Silica Nanofiller: Studies on Cure Characteristics and Rubber-filler Interaction. J. Ind. Tech., (2011) 20(1): 103-121.

W. Kaewsakul, K. Sahakaro, W.K. Dierkes and J.W.M. Noordermeer, Cooperative effects of epoxide functional groups on natural rubber and silane coupling agents on reinforcing efficiency of silica, Rubber Chem. Technol, (2014) 87(2) : 291-310.

P.J. Martin, P. Brown, A.V. Chapman and S. Cook, Silica-Reinforced Epoxidized Natural Rubber Tire Treads – Performance and Durability, Rubber Chem. Technol, (2015) 88(3):390-411.

S.S. Sarkawi, A.K. Che Aziz, T. Z. Zaeimoedin, M. Mustafa Kamal, (2014), Ekoprena in Green Retread, MRB Rubber Technology Developments (MRTD), (2014) 14(2): 53-58.

M. Galimberti, V. Cipolleti, S. Musto, S. Cioppa, G. Peli, M. Mauro, G. Gaetano, S.Agnelli, R. Theonis and V. Kumar, Recent Advancements in Rubber Nanocomposites, Rubber Chem. Technol., (2014) 87: 417-442.

Z. Yang, B. Guo and L. Zhang, Challenge of Rubber/Graphene Composites Aiming at Real Applications, Rubber Chem. Technol., (2017) 87: 417-442

S. Wolff, M.-J. Wang, and E-H. Tan, Filler-Elastomer Interactions. Part VII. Study on Bound Rubber, Rubber Chem. Technol, (1993) 66:163-177.

A. R. Payne and R. E. Whittaker, Low Strain Dynamic Properties of Filled Rubbers, Rubber Chem. Technol., (1971) 44: 440-478.

H-D. Luginsland, J. Fröhlich and A. Wehmeier, Influence of Different Silanes on the Reinforcement of Silica-Filled Rubber Compounds, Rubber Chem Technol, (2002) 75:563-580.

S.S. Sarkawi, W.K. Dierkes and J.W.M. Noordermeer, The influence of non-rubber constituents on performance of silica reinforced natural rubber compounds, Eur. Polym. J., (2013) 49: 3199-3209.

S.S. Sarkawi, A. Abd Aziz, N.I. Nik Ismail, R. Abdul Rahim and A.K. Che Aziz, Novel Dual Filler: A Study of Dual-nanofiller Reinforcement of Epoxidized Natural Rubber, Tire Technology International 2016, (2016) 98-100.

S.S. Sarkawi, W.K. Dierkes and J.W.M. Noordermeer, Elucidation of Filler-to-Filler and Filler-to-Rubber Interactions in Silica Reinforced Natural Rubber by TEM Network Visualization, Eur. Polym. J., (2014) 54: 118-127.

S.S.Sarkawi, A.K.Che Aziz, R.Abdul Rahim, R.Abdul Ghani and A.N.Kamaruddin, Properties of Epoxidized Natural Rubber Tread Compound: The Hybrid Reinforcing Effect of Silica and Silane System, Polym. Polym. Comp., (2016) 24(9): 775-782.

S.S.Sarkawi, W. Kaewsakul, K. Sahakaro, W.K. Dierkes and J.W.M. Noordermeer, A Review on Reinforcement of Natural Rubber by Silica Fillers for Use in Low-Rolling Resistance Tyres, J. Rubb. Res. (2015), 18(4): 203-233.

W. Kaewsakul, K. Sahakaro, W.K. Dierkes and J.W.M. Noordermeer, Verification of Interactions between Silica and Epoxidised Squalene as a Model for Epoxidised Natural Rubber, J. Rubb. Res. (2014), 17(3): 129-142.

K.H. Nordsiek, Integral Elastomer, Paper 48, 125th Meeting of the Rubber Division, ACS, Indianapolis, May8-10(1984).


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Call for Submissions

We welcome submissions for the coming issue that will be officially published in March 2022. We are committed to providing results of reviewing within two weeks, and publishing the paper within one month from the submission date (subjected to responses by authors). This means accepted papers will be available online even before the issue is published officially.

Publons Partners

Journal of Polymer Science and Technology (JPST) is now one of Publons Partners. This means biodata of reviewers in Publons will be automatically updated once reviewing on articles submitted to JPST is completed (subjected to terms and conditions).

How to promote journal articles

Promoting your journal article is imperative to maximise the exposure, enhance the discoverability and increase engagement with readers and other academics. Together with the publisher, as an author, you can help to promote your newly published articles via the following:

1) Institutional webpage.
Provide the link of your latest article in your institutional website. The webpage visitors who view your profile will be able to see your latest research and publications.

2) Social media.
The rise of the social media has also profoundly affected the publishing fraternity. More and more users have chosen the social media platforms as a way of sharing. Social media sharing helps foster convenient dissemination of information, which can be achieved within a short time. You can share your article in major online social media platforms including Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and so on.

3) Utilise scholarly networking and reference platforms.
A scholarly or academic networking platforms such as, MyNetResearch, ResearchGate, Mendeley and so on are indeed useful as they help bring scholars of common areas of expertise close together.

4) Press Releases.
If your article involves a new, significant or important discovery, consider linking up with media organisations for a press release. This brings your work to the mainstream media.

5) Blog.
If you keep a personal blog, you can get your blog readers updated with the list of your most recently published articles and the development in your area of research. Linking your article in your personal blog can vastly enhance the discoverability. Discuss briefly about the article and how the users might benefit from it.

6) Add to reading list or assignment.
Add your article (or the journal your article is published) as essential reading to your students. You may also create related assignments, e.g. review of the article, or have them discussed about the write up in class.

7) Add to your signature.
Announce your latest publication underneath your signature. Provide a link where the article can be downloaded/viewed.