Cover Image

Potential of Wood Fibre Reinforced Polymeric Composites: An Overview

Adole Michael Adole, Jamaludin Mohamad Yatim, Suhaimi Abubakar Ramli, Norazura Mizal Azzmi


Wood has for quite some time been utilized by plastics industry as inexpensive reinforcement or filler to increase strength and stiffness of polymer composites and to decrease raw material expenses too. The shift from petroleum based fibres to plant fibres as reinforcements or fillers in thermosets or thermoplastics is due to relatively low cost, low density, eco-efficient, biodegradability and renewability. This paper provides an overview on the progress made in the area of wood fibre as a material for bio-composites, in terms of source, type, structure and composition. Consequently, this article discusses modification methods as well as most regular matrices utilized in wood fibre plastic composites from both petroleum based and bio-based sources. Properties such as mechanical behaviour, water absorption characteristics and thermal decomposition were reviewed. Hybridization of wood fibre reinforced composites and, processing technologies and application were also discussed. Finally, the review discusses current advances and future trends of wood fibre bio-composites as well as crucial issues that should be tended to.


wood fibre; bio-composites; mechanical properties; water absorption; thermal properties

Full Text:



Nabi, S.D. & Jog, J.P. Natural fibre polymer composites: A review. Advanced Polymer Technology. (1999) 18(4) :351–363.

Mohanty, A.K., Misra, M. & Hinrichsen, G. Bio-fibres, biodegradable polymers and bio-composites: An overview. Macromol.

Materials Engineering. (2000) 276/277(1) :1 -24.

Franco, P.H. & González, A.V. Mechanical properties of continuous natural fibre-reinforced polymer composites. Composites: Part

A. (2004) 35(3) :339–345.

Wambua, P. Ivens, J. & Verpoest, I. Natural fibres: Can they replace glass in fibre reinforced plastics? Composites Science and

Technology. (2003) 63(9) :1259-1264.

Lopattananon, N., Panawarangkul, K., Sahakaro, K. & Ellis, B. Performance of Pineapple Leaf Fibre–Natural Rubber Composites:

The Effect of Fibre Surface Treatments. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. (2006) 102(2) :1974-1984.

Ashori, A. Wood plastic composites as promising green-composites for automotive industry. Bioresource Technology. (2008)

(11) :4661-4667.

Bledzki, A.K., Reihmane, S. & Gassan, J. Thermoplastics reinforced with wood fillers: A literature review. Polymer Plastic

Technology and Engineering. (1998) 37(4) :451-468.

Stanciu, M.D., Terciu, O.M. & Curtu, L. Comparison of mechanical and elastic characteristics between solid wood and

lignocellulosic composite. Proligno. (2013) 9(4) :443-449.

Lelived, J. & Crutzen, P.J. Indirect chemical effects of methane on climate warming. Nature. (1992) 355 :339-342.

Bismarck, A., Baltazar, A., Jimenez, Y. & Sarikakis, K. Green composites as panacea? Socio-economic aspects of green materials.

Available from: http://www.springerlin .com, (2006). Accessed: 2017-01-20.

Gurunathan, T., Mohanty, S. & Nayak, S. K. A review of the recent developments in biocomposites based on natural fibres and

their application perspectives. Composites: Part A. (2015) 77 :1-25.

Li, Y., Mai, Y.W. & Ye, L. Sisal fibre and its composites: A review of recent developments. Composites Science and Technology.

(2000) 60(11) :2037-2055.

Kumar, V., Tyagi, L. & Sinha, S. Wood flour-reinforced plastics composites: A review. Reviews in Chemical Engineering, (2011)

(5-6) :253-264

Soury, E., Behravesh, A.E., Esfahani, E.R. & Zolfaghari, A. Design optimization and manufacturing of wood plastic composite

pallet. Materials and Design. (2009) 30(10) 4183-4191.

Bengtsson, M. & Oksman, K. Silane crosslinked wood plastic composites: Processing and Properties. Composites Science and

Technology. (2006) 66(13) :2177-2186.

Jayaraman, K. Manufacturing sisal-polypropylene composites with minimum fibre degradation. Composites Science and

Technology. (2003) 63(3-4) :367–374.

Brett, C. & Waldron, K. Physiology and Biochemistry of Plant Cell Walls.2nd ed.Chapman & Hall, London. (1996).

Baley, C. Analysis of the flax fibres tensile behaviour and analysis of the tensile stiffness increase. Composites: Part A. (2002)

(7) :939–948.

Hamad, W. Cellulosic Materials: Fibres, Networks, and Composites. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. (2002).

Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., Bhat, A.H. & Ireana, A.F. Green composites from sustainable cellulose nanofibrils: A review. Carbohydrate

Polymers. (2012) 87(2) :963-979.

Summerscales, J., Nilmini, P.J.D., Virk, A.S. & Hall, W. A review of bast fibres and their composites. Composites: Part A:

Applied Science and Manufacturing. (2010) 4(10) :1336– 1344.

Singha, A.S. & Thakur, V.K. Green Polymer Materials. Houston, TX: Studium Press LLC. (2012).

Thakur, V.K., Singha, A.S. & Thakur, M.K. Green Composites from Natural Cellulosic Fibres. Germany: GmbH & Co. KG.


. Satyanarayana, K.G., Ravikumar, K.K., Sukumaran, K., Mukherjee, P.S., Pillai, S.G.K. & Kulkarni, A.K. Structure and properties

of some vegetable fibres. Part 3. Talipot and palmyrah fibres. Journal of Material Science. (1986) 21(1) :57-63.

John, M.J. & Thomas, S. Bio-fibres and bio-composites. Review. Carbohydrates Polymer. (2008) 71(3) :343-364.

Panshin, A.J. & deZeeuw, C. Textbook of wood technology. 4th ed. New York: McGraw–Hill. (1980).

Ververis, C., Georghiou, K., Christodoulakis, N., Santas, P. & Santas, R. Fibre dimensions, lignin and cellulose content of various

plant materials and their suitability for paper production. Industrial Crops and Products. (2004) 19(3) :245–254.

Ouajai, S. & Shanks, R.A. Bio-composites of cellulose acetate butyrate with modified hemp cellulose fibres. Macromolecular

Materials and Engineering. (2009) 294(3) :213–221.

Tserki, V., Matzinos, P., Kokkou, S. & Panayioyou, C. Novel biodegradable composites based on treated lignocellulosic waste

flour as filler: Part 1. Surface Chemical Modification and Characterization of Waste Flour. Composites: Part A. (2005) 36(7)


Nachtigall, S., Cerveira, G. & Rosa, S. New Polymeric-coupling Agent for Polypropylene/Wood-flour Composites. Polymer

Testing. (2007) 26(5) :619–628.

Ek, M., Gellerestedt, G. & Henriksson, G. Wood chemistry and biotechnology.Vol.1. Walter de Gruyter. Berlin. 24-25. (2009).

David, N.S.H. & Nobua, S. Wood and cellulose chemistry. Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 54-55. (2002).

Shebani, A.N., Van Reenen, A.J. & Meinken, M. The effect of wood species on the mechanical and thermal properties of wood-

LLDPE composites. Journal of Composite Materials. (2009) 43(11) :1305-1318.

Pettersen, R.C. The chemical composition of wood. In The Chemistry of Solid Wood, Rowell, R M ed., American Chemical

Society, Washington, DC. 76-81. (1984).

Lilholt, H. & Lawther, J.M. Natural organic fibres. Comprehensive Composite Materials, Vol. 1: Fibre Reinforcements and

General Theory of Composites. (2000) 303–325.

Spence, K.L., Venditti, R.A., Rojas, O.J. Habibi, Y. & Pawlak, J.J. The effect of chemical composition on microfibrillar cellulose

films from wood pulps: water interactions and physical properties for packaging applications. Cellulose. (2010) 17(4) :835–848.

Stokke, D.D. & Wuhan, Q. G. Introduction to Wood and Natural Fibre Composites. John Wiley and Sons, West Sussex, UK.


Gassan, J. & Bledzki, A.K. Possibilities for improving the mechanical properties of jute/epoxy composites by alkali treatment of

fibres. Composites Science and Technology. (1999) 59(9) 1303-1309.

Ku, H., Wang, H., Pattarachaiyakoop, N. & Trada, M. A review on the tensile properties of natural fibre reinforced polymer

composites. Composite: Part B. (2011) 42(4) :856–873.

Biagiotti, J., Puglia, D. & Kenny, M. A review of natural fibre-based composites part I: Structure, processing and properties of

vegetable fibres. Journal of Natural Fibres. (2004) 1(2) :37-68.

Neagu, R. C., Gamstedt, E. K. & Lindstrom, M. Characterization methods for elastic properties of wood fibres from mats for

composite materials. Wood and Fibre Science. (2006a) 38(1) :95–111.

Neagu, R.C., Gamstedt, E.K. & Berthold, F. Stiffness contribution of various wood fibres to composite materials. Journal of

Composite Materials. (2006b) 40(8) :663– 699.

Bledzki, A.K. & Gassan, J. Composites reinforced with cellulose based fibres. Progress in polymer science. (1999) 24(2) :221-

Abdul-Hussein, A.B., Al-Hassani, E.S. & Mohammed, R.A. Effect of nature materials powder on mechanical and physical

properties of glass fibre/epoxy composite. Journal of Engineering and Technology. (2015) 33 (1) :175–197.

Ichazo, M.N., Albano, C., Gonzalez, J., Perera, R. & Candal, M.V. Polypropylene/wood flour composites: Treatments and

properties. Composite Structures. (2001) 54 (2/3) :207-214.

Sombatsompop, N., Chaochanchaikul, K., Phromchirasuk, C. & Thongsang, S. Effect of wood sawdust content on rheological and

structural changes, and thermo-mechanical properties of PVC/sawdust composites. Polymer International. (2003) 52(12)


Peltola, P. Alternative fibre sources. Paper and wood fibres as reinforcement. In Green Composites: Polymer Composites and

Environment. 81-99. (2002).

Belgacem, M. N., & Gandini, A. The surface modification of cellulose fibres for use as reinforcing elements in composite

materials. Composite Interfaces. (2005) 12(1-2) :41–75.

George, J., Sreekala, M.S. & Thomas, S. A review on interface modification and characterization of natural fibre reinforced plastic

composites. Polymer Engineering and Science. (2001) 41 (9) :1471-1485.

Zafeiropoulos, N.E. Engineering the fibre-matrix interface in natural fibre composites. In properties and performance of natural

fibre composites. Woodhead publishing series in Composites Science and Engineering. (2008) 127-162.

Garbassi, F., Morra, M. & Ochiello, E. Polymer Surfaces: from Physics to Technology. Polymer International. (1994) 36 (3) :300-

Shafizadeh, F. In Cellulose Chemistry and its Applications, Nevell. T. P. and Zeronian. S. H. (Eds), New York, Ellis Horwood.


Vladkova, T.G., Dineff, P.D. & Gospodinova, D.N. Wood flour: A new filler for the rubber processing industries. III. Cure

characteristics and mechanical properties of nitrile butadiene rubber compounds filled by wood flour in the presence of phenol

formaldehyde resin. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. (2004) 92(1) :95-101.

Yuan, X., Jayaraman, K. & Bhattaacharyya, D. Effects of plasma treatment in enhancing the performance of wood fibre-

polypropylene composites. Composites: Part A. (2004) 35(12) :1363-1374.

Rowell, R., Lange, S., McSweeny, J. & Davis, M. Modification of wood fibre using steam. In: 6th Pacific Rim Bio- Based

Composites Symposium. Workshop on the Chemical Modification of Cellulosic, Portland, Oregon, USA. (2002) 2 :606–615.

Kaboorani, A., Faezipour, M. & Ebrahim, G. Feasibility of using heat treated wood in wood/thermoplastic composites. Journal of

Reinforced Plastics and Composites. (2008) 27(16-17) :1689-1699.

Kallakas, H., Shamim, M.A., Olutubo, T., Poltimae, T., Suld, T.M., Krumme, A. & Kers, J. Effect of chemical modification of

wood flour on the mechanical properties of wood plastic composites. Agronomy Research. (2015) 13(3) :639-653.

Li, X., Tabil, L.G. & Satyanarayan, P. Chemical treatments of natural fibre for use in natural fibre-reinforced composites: A

review. Journal of Polymer Science and Engineering. (2007) 15(1) :25-33.

Jahn, A., Schroder, M.W., Futing, M., Schenzel, K. & Diepenbrock, W. Characterization of alkali treated flax fibres by means of

FT Raman Spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy. Spectron Chimica Acta: Part A. (2002)

(10) :2271-2279.

Agrawal, R., Saxena, N.S., Sharma, K.B., Thomas, S. & Sreekala, M.S. Activation energy and crystallization kinetics of untreated

and treated oil pam fibre reinforced phenol formaldehyde composites. Materials Science and Engineering. (2000) 277(1-2) :77-82.

Manna, S., Soha, P., Chowdhury, S. & Thomas, S. Alkaline treatment to improve the physical, mechanical and chemical properties

of lignocellulosic natural fibres for use in various application. In Arindam kuila & Vinay Sharma (eds). Lignocellulosic Biomass

Production and Industrial Application. Scrivener Publishing LLC. (2017) 47-64.

John, M.J., Francis, B., Varughese, K.T. & Thomas, S. Effect of chemical modification on properties of hybrid fibre bio-

composites. Composites. Part A: (2008) 9 (2) :352– 363.

Gwon, J.G, Lee, S.Y., Chun, S.J., Doh, G.H. & Kim, J.H. Effect of chemical treatments of wood fibres on the physical strength of

polypropylene based composites. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. (2010) 27 (2) :651–657.

Hossain, M.F., Islam, M.K. & Islam, M.A. Effect of chemical treatment on the mechanical and physical properties of wood

sawdust particles reinforced polymer matrix composites. Procedia Engineering. (2014) 90 :39-45.

Prompunjai, A. & Sridach, W. Preparation and some mechanical properties of composite materials made from sawdust, cassava

starch and natural rubber latex. International Journal of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering. (2010) 4 (12) :772-

Ahmed, I., Mosadeghzad, Z., Daik, R. & Ramli, A. The effect of alkali treatment and filler size on the properties of sawdust /UPR

composites based on recycled PET wastes. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. (2008) 109(6) :3651-3658.

Nabinejad, O., Sujan, D., Rahman, M.E., Liew, W.Y.H. & Davies, I.J. Mechanical and thermal characterization of polyester

composite containing treated wood flour from palm oil biomass. Polymer Composites. (2016) 39(4) 1200-1211

Vladkova, T.G., Dineff, P.D., & Gospodinova, D.N. Wood flour: A new filler for the rubber processing industries. III. Cure

characteristics and mechanical properties of nitrile butadiene rubber compounds filled by wood flour in the presence of phenol

formaldehyde resin. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. (2004) 92(1) :95-101.

Thakur, V.K. & Singha, A.S. Nanotechnology in Polymers. Houston, TX stadium press L.L.C. (2012).

Osman, K. & Sain, M. Wood-polymers Composites. Boca Raton, FL: CRC. Press. (2008).

Reinhart, T.J. & Clements, L.L. Introduction to composites. Vol 1. Engineered Materials Handbook: Composites. OH USA.


Bower, D.I. An Introduction to Polymer Physics, Cambridge University. UK. (2002).

Sreekumar, P.A. & Thomas, S. Matrices for natural fibre reinforced composites. In Pickering KL. Properties and performance of

natural fibre composites. (2008). 67-126.

Aranguren, M.I. & Reboredo, M.M. Plant-based reinforcements for thermosets: Matrices, processing and properties. In Fakirov S,

Bhattacharyya (eds). Handbook Engineering Biopolymers: Homo Polymers, Blends and Composites. (2007) 193-221.

Ray, D. & Rout, J. Thermoset Bio-composites. In Mohanty A.K. Misra. M. Drzal T. Natural fibres, Biopolymers and Bio-

composites: (2005) 291-301.

Hafizah, N.A.K., Hussin, M.W., Jamaludin, M.Y., Bhutta, M.A.R., Ismail, M. & Azman, M. Tensile behaviour of kenaf fibre

reinforced polymer composites. Jurnal Teknologi. (2014) 69 (3) :11-15.

Nabinejad, O., Sujan, D., Rahman, M.E. & Davies, I.J. Effect of filler load on the curing behaviour and mechanical and thermal

performance of wood flour filled thermoset composites. Journal of Cleaner Production. (2017) 164 :1145-1156.

Kumar, R., Kumar, K., Sahoo, P. & Bhowmik, S. Study of mechanical properties of wood dust reinforced epoxy composites.

Procedia Material Science. (2014) 6 :51-556.

Mosadeghzad, Z., Ahmad, I., Daik, R., Ramli, A. & Jalaludin, Z. Preparation and properties of acacia sawdust/UPR composite

based on recycled PET. Malaysian Polymer Journal. (2009) 4(1) :30-41.

Anomie, H., Perera, R. & Candal, M.V. Polypropylene/wood flour composites: Treatments and properties. Composite Structures.

(2001) 54(2-3) :207-214.

Rahman, R.M., Islam Nazrul, M.N. & Huque, M.M. Influence of fibre treatment on the mechanical and morphological properties

of sawdust reinforced polypropylene composites. Journal of Polymer and Environment. (2010) 18(3) :1443-450.

Li, L., Guo, W. & Guo, C. Synergetic effect of melamine polyphosphate and aluminium hypophosphate on mechanical properties

and flame retardancy of HDPE/wood flour composites. Wood Science and Engineering. (2017) 51(3) :493-506.

Le Moigue, N., longerey, M., Taulemesse, J., Benezet, J. & Bergerel, A. Study of the interface in natural fibres reinforced poly

(lactic acid) bio-composites modified by optimizes organosilane treatments. Industrial Crops Production. (2014) 52 :48-494.

Oksman, K., Skrifvars, M. & Selin, J.F. Natural fibres as reinforcement in polylactic acid (PLA) composites. Composites Science

and Technology. (2003) 63(9) 1317-1324.

Tsuji, H. In biopolymers. Vol 4: Polyesters III, Steinbu Chel A. Eds. Wiley-VCH: Weinheim. 129. (2002).

Drumright, R.E., Gruber, P.R. & Henton, D.E. Polylactic acid technology. Advanced Materials. (2000) 12(23) :1841-1846.

Garlotta, D.A. Literature review of poly (lactic acid). Journal of Polymer and Environment. (2002) 9(2) :63-84.

Lee, B.H., Kim, H.S., Lee, S., Kim, H.L. & Dorgan, J.R. Bio-composites of kenaf fibres in polylactide: Role of improved

interfacial adhesion in the carding process. Composites Science and Technology. (2009) 69(15-16) :2573-2579.

Ochi, S. Mechanical properties of kenaf fibres and kenaf/PLA composites. Mechanics of Materials. (2008) 40(4-5) :446-452.

Valarmathi, T.N., Ganesan, B. & Seker, S. Evaluation of mechanical properties of teak wood sawdust-cashew nut shell liquid

resin composites. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 7(2015) 66-767 :79-84.

Lee, S. Y., Kang, A., Doh, G.H., Yoon, H.G., Park, B.D. & Wu, Q. Thermal and mechanical properties of wood flour/tack-filled

polylactic acid composites: Effect of filler content and coupling treatment. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials.

(2008) 21:209-223.

Gregorova, A., Hrabalova, M., Kovalcik, R. & Wimmer, R. Surface modification of spuce wood flour and effects on the dynamic

fragility of PLA/wood composites. Polymer Engineering and Science. (2011) 51(1) :143-150.

Mohanty, A.K., Misra, M. & Drzal, L.T. Natural fibres, biopolymers and bio-composites. Boca Raton: CRC press. Taylor and

Francis Group. (2005).

Ndiaye, D., Matuana, L.M., Morlat-Therias, S., Vidal, L., Tidjani, A. & Gardette, J.L. Thermal and mechanical properties of

polypropylene/wood-flour composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. (2011) 119(6) :3321–3328.

Hosseinaei, O., Wang, S., Enayati, A.A. & Rials, T.G. Effects of hemicellulose extraction on properties of wood flour and wood–

plastic composite. Composites: Part A. (2012) 43(4) :686–694.

Stark, N. M., Robert, E. & Rowlands, R.E. Effects of wood fibre characteristics on the mechanical properties of

wood/polypropylene composites. Wood and Fibre Science. (2003) 35(2) :167-174.

Stark, N.M. & Berger, M.J. Effect of particle size on the properties of wood flour reinforced polypropylene composites. 4th

International Conference on Wood Fibre Composites. (1997) 134-143.

Li, L., Guo, W. & Guo, C. Synergetic effect of melamine polyphosphate and aluminum hypophosphate on mechanical properties

and flame retardancy of HDPE/wood flour composites. Wood Science and Engineering. (2017) 51(3) :493-506.

Chandemanche, S., Perrot, A., Pimbert, S., Lecompte, T. & Faure, F. Properties of an industrial extruded HDPE-WPC: The effect

of size distribution of wood flours particles. Journal of Construction and Building Materials. (2018) 162 :543-552.

Nabinejad, O., Sujan, D., Rahman, M.E., Reddy, M.M., Liew, W.Y.H. & Davies, I.J. The effect of alkaline treatment of OPKS

filler on mechanical property of polyester-composite. Advanced Materials Research. (2014) 980 :86-90.

Marcovich, N.E., Aranguren, M.I. & Reboredo, M.M. Modified wood flour as thermoset fillers. Part I: Effect of the chemical

modification and percentage of filler on the mechanical properties. Polymer. (2001) 42(2) :815-825.

Zhang, H. Effect of a novel coupling agent, alkyl ketone dimer on the mechanical properties of wood plastic composites.

Materials and Design. (2014) 59 :130-134.

Sarki, J., Hassana, S.B., Aigbodiona, V.S. & Oghenevweraa, J.E. Potential of using coconut shell particle fillers in eco-

composites materials. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. (2011) 509(5) :2381-2385.

Alvarez, V.A. & Vazquez, A. Effects of water sorption on the flexural properties of a fully biodegradable composite. Journal of

Composite Materials. (2004) 38 (13) :1165-1182.

Alvarez, V.A., Fraga, A.N. & Vazquez, A. Effects of moisture and fibre content on the mechanical properties of biodegradable

polymer-sisal fibre composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. (2004) 91(6) :4007-4016.

Stark, N. Influence of moisture absorption on the mechanical properties of wood flour-polypropylene composites. Journal of

Thermoplastic Composite Materials. (2001) 14 :421-432.

Fakhrul, T., Mahhub, R. & Islam, M. A. Properties of wood sawdust and wheat flour reinforced polypropylene composites.

Journal of Modern Science and Technology. (2013) 1 :35-148.

Thakur, V.K. & Singha, A.S. Mechanical and water absorption properties of natural fibres/polymer bio-composites. Polymer

Plastic Technology and Engineering. (2010) 49 (7) :694-700.

Joseph, P.V. Joseph, K., Thomas, S., Pillai, C.K.S., Prasad, V.S., Groeninck, G.& Sarkissova, M. Thermal and crystallization

studies of short sisal fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. Composites Part A. (2003) 34(3) :253-266.

Huda, M.S., Drzal, L.T., Ray, D. & Misra, M. Natural fibre composites in automotive sector. In Performance of Natural Fibre

Composites. Composites Science and Engineering. 221-268. Woodhead publishing series. (2008).

Nornerg, B., Borchardt, E., Luinstra, G.A. & Fromm, J. Wood plastic composites from polypropylene carbonate and poplar wood

flour: Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties. European Polymer Journal. (2014) 51 :167-176.

Thwe, M.M. & Liao, K. Durability of bamboo-glass fibre reinforced polymer matrix hybrid composites. Composites Science and

Technology. (2003) 63(3-4) :375-387.

Mirbagheri, J., Tajxidi, M., Hermanson, J.C. & Ghasemi, I. Tensile properties of wood flour/kenaf fibre polypropylene hybrid

composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. (2007) 105(5) :3054-3059.

Valente, M., Sarasini, F., Marra, F., Tirillo, J. & Pulai, G. Hybrid recycled glass fibre/wood flour thermoplastic composites:

Manufacturing and mechanical characterization. Composites: Part A. (2011) 42(6) :649-657.

Zolfaghari, A., Behravesh, A.H. & Shahi, P. Comparison of mechanical properties of wood plastics composites reinforced with

continuous and non-continuous glass fibres. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials. (2015) 28 (6) :791-805.

Ho, M.P., Wang, H., Lee, J.H., Ho, C.K., Lau, K.T., Leng, J. & Hui, D. Critical factors on manufacturing process of natural fibre

composites. Composites: Part B. (2012) 43(8) :3549-3562.

Matuana, L.M. Recent developments in wood plastic Composites. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology. (2009) 15(3) :136-

Clemons, C.M. Wood flour, in Xanthos, M., Functional Filler for Plastics. second updated and enlarged edition, Wiley-VCH,

Weinheim, Germany. (2010).

Matuana, L.M. & Stark, N.M. The use of wood fibres as reinforcements in composites in Bio-fibre Reinforcement in Composite

Materials. 648-688. Woodhead Publishing. (2015).


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Call for Submissions

We welcome submissions for the coming issue that will be officially published in March 2022. We are committed to providing results of reviewing within two weeks, and publishing the paper within one month from the submission date (subjected to responses by authors). This means accepted papers will be available online even before the issue is published officially.

Publons Partners

Journal of Polymer Science and Technology (JPST) is now one of Publons Partners. This means biodata of reviewers in Publons will be automatically updated once reviewing on articles submitted to JPST is completed (subjected to terms and conditions).

How to promote journal articles

Promoting your journal article is imperative to maximise the exposure, enhance the discoverability and increase engagement with readers and other academics. Together with the publisher, as an author, you can help to promote your newly published articles via the following:

1) Institutional webpage.
Provide the link of your latest article in your institutional website. The webpage visitors who view your profile will be able to see your latest research and publications.

2) Social media.
The rise of the social media has also profoundly affected the publishing fraternity. More and more users have chosen the social media platforms as a way of sharing. Social media sharing helps foster convenient dissemination of information, which can be achieved within a short time. You can share your article in major online social media platforms including Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and so on.

3) Utilise scholarly networking and reference platforms.
A scholarly or academic networking platforms such as, MyNetResearch, ResearchGate, Mendeley and so on are indeed useful as they help bring scholars of common areas of expertise close together.

4) Press Releases.
If your article involves a new, significant or important discovery, consider linking up with media organisations for a press release. This brings your work to the mainstream media.

5) Blog.
If you keep a personal blog, you can get your blog readers updated with the list of your most recently published articles and the development in your area of research. Linking your article in your personal blog can vastly enhance the discoverability. Discuss briefly about the article and how the users might benefit from it.

6) Add to reading list or assignment.
Add your article (or the journal your article is published) as essential reading to your students. You may also create related assignments, e.g. review of the article, or have them discussed about the write up in class.

7) Add to your signature.
Announce your latest publication underneath your signature. Provide a link where the article can be downloaded/viewed.