Syahidah Amni Mohamed, Nor Zalina Harun, Alias Abdullah



The concept of study on typology in architecture has first been used in the 18th century based on the idea of classification through the principles such as consistency, specificity, and coherence. In the context of urban planning and design, the idea has been applied as an integrated framework in typological and morphological analysis that aimed to understand the physical and spatial structure and the processes of urban formation. However, there seems to be unexplored potential to integrate the understanding of urban form in urban design with urban morphology that leads to the current problems of piecemeal urban transformation patterns which comprises both positive and negative consequences to urban fabric. In the local context of Malay Traditional Town, lack of socio-spatial perspective in reviving the traditional cities has become an important challenge. This paper therefore aims to highlight the significance of the typological concept to bridge with morphological analysis by recognizing the basic types in its very essence. Based on a synthesis of reviewed literature, a conceptual framework of the concept and characteristic of types and its procedural typologies is presented. The discussions of major findings are divided into three parts. The first part point out to the theoretical evolution of the concept of type and typology. In the second part, the procedural of typological approach is presented which can therefore, be considered as generative elements for urban morphological analysis applied in the context of Early Malay towns. While in the final part, it is concluded that the integration of typo-morphological approach with conservation practice helps to create the coherence of the city following of three characteristics: firstly, the physical manifestation from the clarity of type; secondly the socio-cultural reference from the historical ideas and values in type; and thirdly the transformation of type to fit a particular physical and cultural context.

Keywords: Typology, traditional city, architecture, urban morphology, Malay towns



Konsep kajian mengenai tipologi dalam seni bina telah mula diaplikasi pada seawal abad ke-18. Aplikasi ini merangkumi prinsip-prinsip seperti konsistensi, pengkhususan, dan persamaan. Manakala dalam aspek perancangan dan reka bentuk bandar yang berkaitan dengan penyelidikan morphogenetic pula, idea ini telah digunakan sebagai pendekatan tipo-morfologi yang bertujuan untuk memahami struktur fizikal dan ruang bandar. Namun begitu, terdapat potensi yang belum diterokai untuk mengintegrasikan pemahaman antara bentuk bandar dengan morfologi bandar. Kajian terdahulu membuktikan bahawa kegagalan integrasi yang berkesan akan mengakibatkan corak transformasi bandar yang tidak sekata. Penyelidikan ini menegaskan bahawa kekurangan perspektif sosio-spatial untuk menghidupkan semula bandar-bandar tradisional ini telah menjadi satu cabaran penting terutamanya dalam konteks bandar-bandar Melayu awal. Oleh itu, kertas kerja ini bertujuan untuk menyelami kepentingan konsep tipologi untuk diintegrasikan dengan analisa morfologi bandar. Berdasarkan sintesis dokumen dalam tinjauan literatur, kerangka konseptual mengenai konsep, karakter dan prosedur tipologi dikemukakan di bahagian dapatan kajian. Perbincangan penemuan dibahagikan kepada tiga bahagian. Bahagian pertama meninjau evolusi perkembangan konsep tipologi dan aplikasinya. Manakala bahagian kedua menghuraikan pendekatan tipologi sebagai unsur generatif yang dapat diterapkan dalam konteks analisa tipo-morfologi Bandar Melayu Awal. Seterusnya bahagian akhir menyimpulkan peranan pendekatan tipo-morfologi dalam aspek konservasi bandar yang dapat membantu mewujudkan elemen kesinambungan bentuk bandar berdasarkan tiga karektor berikut: Pertama, manifestasi fizikal dari kejelasan jenis (type); kedua, rujukan sosio-budaya dari idea-idea dan nilai sejarah yang terkandung dalam jenis; dan ketiga, transformasi jenis bersesuaian dengan konteks fizikal dan budaya tertentu.

Kata kunci: Tipologi, morfologi bandar, bandar tradisional, urban planning, bandar Melayu 

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