Gopikrishnan S, Virendra Kumar Paul


User satisfaction should be the primary concern of the infrastructure development agencies, especially in residential projects. Government residential projects are built with huge expenditure and maintenance of these assets also consumes enormous public funds. The facility maintenance agency remains accountable for the expenditure incurred on these assets to ensure performance. Presently public spending by government agencies lacks effective monitoring post construction especially on maintenance of assets. It makes the government agencies less accountable on their expenditure as also with the procedures/processes followed for maintenance of these assets. There is a need to put an effective system in place to firstly gauge and secondly monitor the performance of all such government assets. Mere expenditure of allotted funds by the end of a financial year cannot be a viable indicator to vouch for the genuineness of spending. The most ideal route to measure its effectiveness is the most important stake holder, viz. the end user. This paper is a part of an ongoing research where the ultimate overarching goal is to develop a conceptual framework to implement an intervention strategy for gauging and enhancing user satisfaction based on user requirement related building performance attributes. This paper deals with development of an instrument necessary to garner feedback on user satisfaction. The content of the questionnaire is based on carefully selected attributes for user requirements that reflect building performance. 84% of an expert group comprising of architects, planners, engineers, facility managers and academia agreed with the grouping and selection of attributes and 73% of them agreed with the need to amplify the attributes in the form of sub attributes for better comprehension of participants. Content, translational and construct validity of the questionnaire developed based on these attributes/sub attributes was also carried out establishing the veracity of the instrument. User satisfaction surveys conducted based on this survey instrument shall enable implementation of effective intervention strategies by FM agencies and also be a measure to establish their efficacy and accountability.


Attributes, Building performance evaluation, Questionnaire, User satisfaction, Validation.

Full Text:



Aigbavboa, C. O. and Thwala, W. D. (2012), “An appraisal of housing satisfaction in South Africa Low Income Housing Scheme”, International Journal of Construction Management, Vol. 12(1), pp. 1-21

Clement, O.I. and Kayode, O. (2012). “Public housing provision and user satisfaction in Ondo State, Nigeria.” British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 8(1), 103-111

Czepiel, J. A. and Rosenberg, L. J. (1977), “The study of consumer satisfaction: addressing the ‘so what’ question, in Hunt, K.H.” Marketing Science Institute, Cambridge, MA.

Day, R.L. (1977), “Alternative definitions and designs for measuring consumer satisfaction in Hunt, K. H.”, Marketing Science Institute, Cambridge, MA.

Fatoye, E.O. and Odusami, K.T. (2009), “Occupants’ satisfaction approach to housing performance evaluation: the case of Nigeria.” International proceedings of RICS Cobra Research Conference.” University of Cape Town

Gopikrishnan Seshadhri and Topkar, V.M (2015), “Attributors and descriptors for building performance evaluation”, In Press, HBRC Journal, Housing and Building National Research Centre

Gopikrishnan Seshadhri and Topkar, V.M., (2016). “Validation of a questionnaire for objective evaluation of performance of built facilities.” Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Vol 30(1)

Gopikrishnan Seshadhri and Paul, V.K., (2016). “User requirement related performance attributes for government residential buildings.” Journal of Facilities Management, Vol. 15 (4), pp. 409-422

Gopikrishnan Seshadhri and Paul, V.K. (2017). “Intervention strategy for enhanced user satisfaction based on user requirement related BPAs for government residential buildings”, International Conference on Sustainable Infrastructure, pp. 389-404

Handy, C. R. and Ptaff, M. (1975), “Consumer satisfaction with food products and marketing services.” Agri. Econ. Rep. 281, Econ. Res. Ser., US Dept. of Agriculture, New York

Hashim, A.E., Aksah, H. and Said, S. Y. (2012), “Functional assessment through post occupancy review on refurbished historical public buildings in Kualalumpur.” Journal for Social and Behavioral Science, Vol. 68, pp. 330-340

Hasselar, E. (2003), “Health performance indicators of housing.” International proceedings of healthy buildings, ISIAQ

Ho, D. C. W., Leung, H.F., Wong, S. K., Cheung, A. K. G., Lau, S. S. Y., Wong, W. S., Lung, D. P. Y., and Chau, K. W. (2004), “Assessing health and hygiene performance of apartment buildings.” Facilities, Vol. 22 (3/4), pp. 58-69

Ibem, E. O., Aduwo, E. B., and Uwakonye, O. (2012), “Adequacy of incremental construction strategy for housing low-income urban residents in Ogun State, Nigeria.” Journal of Built Environment and Asset Management, Vol. 2(2), pp. 182-194

Ibem, E.O., Opoko, A. P., Adeboye, A. B. and Amole, D. (2013), “Performance evaluation of residential buildings in public housing estates of Ogun State, Nigeria: Users’ satisfaction perspective.” Journal of Frontiers of Architectural Research, Vol. 2(2), pp. 178-190

ISO 6241-1984 (E), “Performance standards in buildings – Principles for their preparation and factors to be considered.”

Jiboye, A. D. (2012), “Post occupancy evaluation of residential satisfaction in Lagos, Nigeria: Feedback for residential improvement.” Journal of Frontiers of Architectural Research, Vol. 1(3), pp. 236-243

Khair, N., Ali, H. M., Wilson, A. J., and Juhari, N. H. (2012), “Physical environment for post occupancy evaluation in public low cost housing.” 3rd International Conference on Business and Economic Research.

Khalil, N., Husin, H. N., Hamimah, A., and Nawawi, A. H. (2010), “Correlation analysis of building performance and occupants’ satisfaction via post occupancy evaluation for Malaysia’s public buildings.” Municipal personal RePEc Archives.

Kian, P.S., Feriadi, H., Sulistio, W., and Seng. K.C. (2001), “A case study on total building performance evaluation of an intelligent office building in Singapore.” Civil Engineering Dimension, Vol. 3(1), pp. 9-15

Kim, S., Yang, I., Yeo, M., and Kim, K. (2005), “Development of a housing performance evaluation model for multifamily residential building in Korea.” Journal of Building and Environment, Vol. 40(8), pp. 1103-1116

Kotler, P. (1997). “Marketing management: Analysis, planning, implementation and controls.” 9th edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey

Lindahl, G., Blakstad, S., Hansen, G.K. and Nenonen, S. (2011), “USEframe-A framework to understand and map usability research”, Proceedings of 6th Nordic Conference on Construction Management and Economics.

Loosemore, M. and Hsin, Y.Y. (2001), “Customer based benchmarking for facilities management.” Facilities, Vol. 19(13/14), pp. 464-476 Mbachu, J. and Nkado, R. (2007), “Conceptual framework for assessment of client needs and satisfaction in the building development process”, Journal of Construction Management and Economics, Vol. 24(1), pp. 31-44

Meir, I.A., Garb, Y., Jiao, D., and Cicelsky. (2009). “Post occupancy evaluation: An inevitable step towards sustainability.” Adv. Build.Energy Res., 3(1), 189-219

Meng, X. and Minouge, M. (2011), “Performance measurement models in facility management- a comparative study” Facilities, Vol. 29(11/12), pp. 472-484

Mohammad, M.A. and Azim, M. (2012), “Assessment of residential satisfaction with public housing in Hulhumale, Maldives.” Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 50, pp. 756-770

National Building Code (2005), Bureau of Indian Standards, Government of India

Nik-Mat, N.E.M., Kamaruzzaman, S.N. and Pitt, M. (2011), “Assessing the maintenance Aspect of facilities management through a performance measurement system: A Malaysian case study.” Procedia Engineering Journal, Vol. 20, pp. 329-338

Olatubara, C. O., and Fatoye, E. O. (2007). “Evaluation of satisfaction of occupants of the Abesan Public low-cost housing estate in Lagos State, Nigeria.” Nigerian Journal of Economic Social Studies, Vol. 49(1), pp. 5-9

Olenrawaju, A. A., Khamidi, M. F. and Idrus, A. (2011), “Validation of building maintenance performance model for Malaysian universities.” International Journal of Human and Social Sciences, Vol. 6(3), pp. 159-163

Shohet, I.M., Lavy-Leibovich, S., and Bar-On, D. (2003), “Integrated maintenance management of hospital buildings in Israel.” Journal of Construction Management and Economics, Vol. 21(2), pp. 197-208

Ukoha, O. M., and Beamish, J. O. (1997). “Assessment of residents’ satisfaction with public housing in Abuja, Nigeria.” Habitat International, Vol. 21(4), pp. 445-460

Zickmund, W.G. (1994). “Business Research Methods.” 4th edition, Harcourt College Publishers, NY


  • There are currently no refbacks.