LICHEN (DIRINARIA SP.) AS BIO-INDICATORS FOR DETERMINING ATMOSPHERIC HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION AT SELECTED INDUSTRIAL AREAS IN MALAYSIA (LIKEN (DIRINARI SP.) SEBAGAI PENUNJUK BIOLOGI DALAM MENENTUKAN KEPEKATAN LOGAM BERAT ATMOSFERA DI KAWASAN PERINDUSTRIAN TERPILIH DI MALAYSIA)

Azlan Abas, Norela Sulaiman, Nur Raihan Adnan, Siti Afifah Aziz, Wan Nur Syahirah Wan Nawang

Abstract


Abstract

Heavy metals have been found in the vicinity for a long time. In Malaysia, air pollution still measured using instrumental approach. Hence, this study used lichen as biological indicator to measure air pollution. Study been conducted in four different locations which are Rumah Tumbuhan, UKM (Control station), Section 51 Industrial Area, Petaling Jaya, Spring Crest Industrial Area, Batu Caves and Nilai Industrial Area, Negeri Sembilan. This study used lichen Dirinaria sp. an endemic species of tropical country as the biological indicator. Heavy metals been analyzed using ICP-OES and motor vehicles frequency for every sampling location recorded. One way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation used to test the relationship between heavy metals and sampling locations also relationship between heavy metals and motor vehicle frequency.  Result shows that heavy metals such as Cr, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb have been recorded.  One way ANOVA test shows there is significant relationship between heavy metals and sampling locations where F is 2.7728 and P-value is 0.0001 (where P is significant when < 0.05). Pearson’s correlation also shows the relationships between all heavy metals recorded with motor vehicles frequency are significant where all the P value are< 0.05. Heavy metals are so much related with motor vehicles frequency in the particular location. Higher frequency of motor vehicles will produce higher heavy metals concentration in the vicinity. Lichen can be used as the alternative approach in determining the heavy metals content in the environment.

Keywords: Heavy metals, Lichens, Air pollution, Environmental management, Urban ecosystem

 

Abstrak

Logam berat telah lama ditemui wujud di persekitaran. Di Malaysia, pencemaran udara diukur menggunakan pendekatan instrumental. Oleh itu, kajian ini menggunakan liken sebagai penunjuk biologi bagi mengukur pencemaran udara. Kajian ini telah dijalankan di empat kawasan kajian iaitu Rumah Tumbuhan UKM (Stesyen kawalan), Kawasan Perindustrian Seksyen 51, Petaling Jaya, Kawasan Perindustrian Spring Crest, Batu Caves dan Kawasan Perindustrian Nilai, Negeri Sembilan. Kajian ini juga menggunakan liken Dirinaria sp. yang merupakan spesies yang endemik di kawasan tropika sebagai penunjuk biologi. Logam berat dianalisis menggunakan ICP-OES dan kepadatan kenderaan bermotor diambil bagi setiap stesen persampelan. ANOVA sehala dan Korelasi Pearson digunakan bagi menguji hubungan di antara logam berat dan juga kawasan persampelan serta hubungan di antara logam berat dan kepadatan kenderaan bermotor. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan logam berat seperti Cr, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn dan Pb berjaya direkodkan. Analisis ANOVA sehala menunjukkan ada hubungan signifikan di antara logam berat dengan kawasan persampelan di mana F adalah 2.7728 dan Nilai P adalah 0.0001 (P adalah signifikan pada < 0.05). Korelasi Pearson juga menunjukkan hubungan yang signifikan di antara kesemua logam berat dengan kepadatan kenderaan bermotor yang direkodkan di mana semua Nilai P adalah < 0.05. Logam berat adalah sangat berkait rapat dengan kepadatan kenderaan bermotor di sesuatu kawasan.Semakin tinggi kepadatan kenderaan bermotor semakin tinggi kepekatan logam berat di sesuatu kawasan itu. Liken juga boleh digunakan sebagai pendekatan alternatif di dlaam penentuan logam berat di persekitaran.

Kata kunci: Logam berat, Liken, Pencemaran udara, Pengurusan persekitaran, Ekosistem bandar

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abas, A.&Awang, A. 2017.Air Pollution Assessments Using Lichen Biodiversity Index (LBI)in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.Pollution Research.

Abas, A. &Awang, A. 2015. Determination of Air Pollution Using Biological Indicator (Lichen) Case Study: Bandar BaruBangi. Geografia: Malaysia Journal of Society and Space.

Ali, M. Y., Hanafiah, M. M., Khan, M. F. & Latif, M. T. Quantitative source apportionment and human toxicity of indoor trace metals at university buildings. Building and Environment. 121: 238-246.

Blicharska M, Andersson J, Bergsten J, Bjelke U, Hilding-Rydevik T, Johansson F (2016) Effects of management, function and vegetation on the biodiversity in urban ponds. Urban For Urban Gree 20:103–112

Boonpeng, C., Polyiam, W., Sriviboon, C., Sangiamdee, D., Watthana, S., Nimis, P. L. &Boonpragob, K. 2017. Airborne trace elements near petrochemical industry complex in Thailand assessed by the lichen Parmotrematinctorum(despr. Ex Nyl.) Hale. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 24(13): 1-7.

Cioffi, M. 2009. Air quality monitoring with the lichen biodiversity index (LBI) in the district of Faenza (Italy).EQA-Environmental Quality. 1:1-6

Councell, T. B., Duckenfield, K. U., Landa, E. R. &Callender, E.2004. Tire-Wear Particles as a Source of Zinc to the Environment.Environmental Science Technology.38: 4206-4214.

Din, L.B., Zakaria, Z., Samsudin, M.W. &Elix, J.A. 2010.Chemical profile of compounds from lichens of Bukit Larut Peninsular Malaysia.SainsMalaysiana 39(6): 901-908.

Gharaibeh, A.A., El-Rjoob, A. W. &Harb, M. K. Determination of selected heavy metals in air samples from the northern part of Jordan.Environmental Monitoring Assessment. 160:1-4.

Hjortenkrans, D. 2008. Road traffic metals: Sources and emission. AkademiskAvhandling: Sweden.

Koroleva, Y. &Revunkova V. 2017.Air Pollution Monitoring in the South-East Baltic Using the Epiphytic Lichen HypogymniaphysodesAtmosphere. 8(19):1-12

Loppi, S. &Frati, L. 2006. Lichen diversity and lichen transplants as monitors of air pollution in a rural area of Central Italy. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.114: 361-375.

Monaci, F., Moni, F., Lanciotti, E., Grechi, D. &Bargagli, R. 2000. Biomonitoring of airbone metals in urban environments: new tracers of vehicle emission, in place of lead. Environmental Pollution. 107: 321-327.

Nash T. H. 2008.Lichen Biology. 4th edition. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Nimis, P.L., Scheidegger, C., &Wolseley, P.A. 2002. Monitoring with Lichens.Netherland.Springer.

Norela, S., MohdFuzy, S. F. F., Abdul Muis, S. I. N., Sulaiman, N. & Ismail, B. S. 2018. Use of Lichens as Bio-indicators for Determining Atmospheric Concentration in Malaysia.Pak. J. Bot. 50(1): 421-428.

Olivia, S. R. & Espinosa A. J. F. 2007. Monitoring of heavy metals in topsoils, atmospheric particles and plant leaves to identify possible contamination sources. Microchemical Journal. 86: 131-139.

Protano, C., Owczarek, M., Antonucci, A., Guidotti, M. &Vitali, M. 2017.Assessing indoor air quality of school environments: transplanted lichen Pseudoverniafurfuracea as a new tool for biomonitoring and bioaccumulation.Environmental Monitoring Assessment.Springer Publisher.

Samsudin, M.W. 2010.Liken TumbuhanPrimitif yang masihrelevan. Bangi: PenerbitUniversitiKebangsaan Malaysia.

Samsudin, M. W, Azahar, H, Abas, A. &Zakaria, Z. 2013. Determination of Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (UKM) Contents Using Lichen Dirinariapictain UniversitiKebangsaan Malaysia.Journal of Environmental Protection.

Sipman, H. 2009. Tropical urban lichens: observations from Singapore. Blumea.

Zulkifli, S, Kim, Y. S, Abdul Majid, M. &Merican, A. F. 2011.Distribution of Lichen Flora at Different Altitudes of GunungMachincang, Langkawi Islands, Malaysia.SainsMalaysiana.. 40(11): 1201-1208.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Malay Arts, Culture and Civilization Research Group,

d/a Institut Alam dan Tamadun Melayu
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Tel: +60 3 8921 5280 | Email: ajehh@ukm.edu.my