Chlorpyrifos Blood Level and Exposure Symptoms among Paddy Farmers in Sabak Bernam, Malaysia

  • Rozita Hod
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos - paddy farmers - Sabak Bernam - pesticides exposure symptoms


IntroductionThe extensive and intensive use of pesticides in agricultural practices has exposed farmers to various hazards resulting in varying degrees of health outcomes.MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional study among paddy farmers in Sabak Bernam district, Malaysia. The objective of this study was to gather baseline information on chlorpyrifos blood level and its relationship with pesticides exposure symptoms.ResultsWe detected chlorpyrifos in farmers’ blood in 7 percent of the respondents, with mean 7.29 nanogram per millilitre blood (sd 5.84 nanogram per millilitre). The percentage of farmers who experienced at least one pesticide exposure symptoms was 75 percent. However, we found no significant association between chlorpyrifos blood level and its exposure symptoms. The farmers had low scores on safe practice of pesticide use even though they have high marks on knowledge and attitude. We found no significant association between the scores on knowledge, attitude and practice on pesticide use and the chlorpyrifos blood level.ConclusionsThe presence of pesticide exposure symptoms proved that most of the farmers were exposed to hazardous effects of pesticides. Specific trainings on safe use and handling of pesticides should be given on regular basis to these farmers to ensure they are protected from hazardous effects of pesticides exposure. 

Author Biography

Rozita Hod
Rozita Hod, Department of Community Health, UKM Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar tun Razak, 56000 Cheras Kuala Lumpur.


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How to Cite
Hod, R. (2011). Chlorpyrifos Blood Level and Exposure Symptoms among Paddy Farmers in Sabak Bernam, Malaysia. International Journal of Public Health Research, 1(1), 1-6. Retrieved from
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