Azura Hamdan, Rohany Nasir, Rozainee Khairudin, Wan Shahrazad Wan Sulaiman


The  purpose  of  this  study  was  to examine  and  identify  whether  factors  such  as previous academic  result  (SPM),  gender  and time  management could  determine  differences  among students,  based  on  academic  performance  or  grade  point  average  (GPA). A total of 551 undergraduate students from four universities participated in the study. Students with a GPA of  3.50  or  greater  significantly  differed  in  their  level  of  time  management than  those  with  a GPA  of  less  than  2.50. In  terms  of  gender,  female  students  were  found  to  have  higher  GPA than  male  students.    However, students enrolled with excellent SPM result did  not  differ significantly in term of their GPA from students enrolled with low SPM result. 

Results from ANOVA and t-test showed that time management and gender, not previous academic result, were  the  important  factors  to  distinguish  students  with  low  or  high  academic  performance.  The implication of this study showed that academic excellence among undergraduates did not rely solely on previous academic result, but the role of time management and gender did play significant factors in distinguishing high achievers vs low achievers.


Keyword: Students; time management; previous academic results; gender; academic results.

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