Nur Hafizah Abd Halim Hafiz


Emotion regulation and academic performance are two important domains in achieving students’ life’s goals and objectives. It is crucial for students to have the right attitude and be fortified with effective emotion regulation strategies to handle the difficulties of daily life. Thus, a study to investigate the relationship between emotion regulations strategies, namely cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and academic performance was carried out. Participants of the study comprised of 127 Psychology students, between the age of 21 to 25 years old, from international Islamic University Malaysia. A survey adapted from Emotion Regulation Questionnaires (ERQ) by Gross (2011) was distributed to the participants.Academic performance measures was derived from demographic background and students’ CGPA. Results revealed that there are different findings between the two emotion regulation strategies. This study found there is a significant relationship between Expressive Suppression and CGPA ; however, no significant relationship existed between Cognitive reappraisal and CGPA. Regression model revealed that both cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression did not predict students’ academic performance.

Full Text:



Barlow, D.H., Allen, L.B., Choate, M.L., (2004). Toward a unified treatment for emotional disorders.35, pp. 205–230

Berna, G., Ott, L., Nandrino, J.L., (2004) Effects of emotion regulation difficulties on the tonic and phasic cardiac autonomic response. Plos ONE journal 9(7)

Bradley, R.T., McCraty, R.,Atkinson, M.,Tomasino, d.,Daugherty, A.,Arguelles, L.,(2010).Emotion Self-Regulation, Psychophysiological Coherence,and Test Anxiety: Results from an Experiment Using Electrophysiological Measures. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 35, pp.261–283

Brans, K., Koval, P., Verduyn, P., Lim, Y., & Kuppens, P. (2013). The regulation of negative and positive affect in daily life. Emotion, pp. 926-939.

Brummer, L. (2009), Ageing and Emotion Regulation. University of Southampton, Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences School of Psychology, PhD Thesis

Butler, E., Egloff, B., Wlhelm, F., Smith, N., Erickson, E., & Gross, J. (2003). The Social Consequences of Expressive Suppression. Emotion, pp. 48-67

Davis, P. A., Woodman, T., & Callow, N. (2010). Better out than in: The influence of anger regulation on physical performance. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 49, pp. 457-460

Dillon, D., Ritchey, M., Johnson, B., & LaBar, K. (2007). Dissociable effects of conscious emotion regulation strategies on explicit and implicit memory. Emotion, pp. 354-365.

Eisenberg, N.,Sadovsky, A.,Tracy L. Spinrad, T.L.( 2005).Associations of emotion-related regulation with language skills, emotion knowledge, and academic outcomes, New Dir Child Adolesc Dev. pp. 109–118.

Gardener, E.K.T., Carr,.A.R., MacGregor, A., Felmingham, K.L. (2013). Sex differences and emotion regulation: An event-related potential study. Plus ONE journal, Vol. 8(10)

Gross, J. J. (2002). Emotion regulation: Affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, pp. 281-291.

Gross, J.J., John, O.P. (2003) Individual Differences in Two Emotion Regulation Processes: Implications for Affect, Relationships, and Well-Being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 85 (2), pp. 348–362

Gross, J. J. (2007) Handbook of emotion regulation. The Guilford Press. p. 673

Gross, J.J., Thompson, R. A. (2007) Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. Handbook of emotion regulation. pp. 3–24.

Gumore, G., Arsenio, W.F (2002), Emotionality, Emotion Regulation, and School Performance in Middle School Children. Journal of school Psychology, Vol. 40(5), pp. 395-413

Haryani Haron, Sharifah Muzlia SyedMustafa,Rose Alinda Alias (2010), Gender influences on emotional self-regulation among Malaysian academicians, International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 1(1)

Hayes, J., Morey, R., Petty, C., Seth, S., Smoski, M., Mccarthy, G., &

Labar, K. (2010). Staying cool when things get hot: Emotion regulation modulates neural mechanisms of memory encoding. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

Kong,F., Zhen, Z..,Li, J, Huang, L.,Wang, X.,Song, Y., Liu, J. (2014) Sex-Related Neuroanatomical Basis of Emotion Regulation Ability, Plus ONE journal, Vol. 9(5)

Kunzmann, U., Kupperbusch, C., & Levenson, R. (2005). Behavioral inhibition an amplification during emotional arousal: A comparison of two age groups. Psychology and Aging, pp.144-158

Lane, Andrew, M., Bucknall, Gordon, Davis, Paul and Beedie, Christopher (2012) Emotions and emotion regulation among novice military parachutists. Military Psychology, 24 (3). pp. 331-345.

Lane, A. M., Thelwell, R., & Devonport, T, (2009). Emotional intelligence, mood states and performance. E-journal of Applied Psychology, 5, pp. 67-73.

Lane, A. M., & Terry, P. C. (2000). The nature of mood: Development of a conceptual model with a focus on depression. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 12, pp. 16-33

Leroy, V., Grégoire, J., Magen, E., Gross, J., & Mikolajczak, M. (2011). Resisting the sirens of temptation while studying: Using reappraisal to increase focus, enthusiasm, and performance. Learning and Individual Differences, pp. 263-268

Mauss, I., Levenson, R., Mccarter, L., Wilhelm, F., & Gross, J. (2005). The tie that binds? Coherence among emotion experience, behavior, and physiology. Emotion, pp. 175-190

Mariam A. Z., & Intan A. A. (2012). Students of Low Academic Achievement – Their Personality, Mental Abilities and Academic Performance: How Counsellor Can Help? International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(23).

Marincas, A., David, O.A., (2011) Psycho-social Predictors of Baccalaureate Performance of Romanian Students: what makes the difference between Students who Fail and those who succeed? Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy pp. 210-228

McLaughlin, K. A., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Mennin, D. S., Hoeksemad, S.N. (2011). Emotion dysregulation and adolescent psychopathology: A prospective study. Behav Res Ther. Vol. 49(9): pp.544–554

M.Y. Ganai1, Muhammad Ashraf Mir, (2013). A comparative study of adjustment and academic achievement of college students. Journal of Educational Research and Essays Vol. 1(1), pp. 5- 8

O’Connor, E. (2011) Trait motivation and emotion regulation as predictors of anxiety. Deakin University. Phd Thesis.

Pekrun, R., Elliot, A., & Maier, M. (2009). Achievement goals and achievement emotions: testing a model of their joint relations with academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, pp. 115-135.

Raver CC. (2002). Emotions matter: Making the case for the role of young children’s emotional development for early school readiness. Social Policy Report, Society for Research in Child Development.; pp.3-18.

Richards, J.M, & Gross, J.J (2000). Emotion regulation and memory: The cognitive costs of keeping one’s cool. 79, pp. 410-424.

Spaapen, D., Waters, F., Brummer, L., Stopa, L., & Bucks, R. (2014). The emotion regulation questionnaire: Validation of the ERQ-9 in two community samples. Psychological Assessment.

Sheppes, G., & Meiran, N. (2007). Better Late Than Never? On the Dynamics of Online Regulation of Sadness Using Distraction and Cognitive Reappraisal. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, pp.1518-1532.

Tamir, M. (2009). What do people want to feel and why? Pleasure and utility in emotion regulation. Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol. 18, pp. 101-105.

Valiente, C., Swanson, J., & Eisenberg, N. (2012). Linking Students’ Emotions and Academic Achievement: When and Why Emotions Matter. Child Development Perspectives

Wiltink, J., Glaesmer, H., Canterino, M., Wolfling, K., Knebel, A., Kessler, H., Beutler, M. E. (2011). Regulation of emotions in the community: Suppression and reappraisal strategies and its psychometric properties. GMS Psycho-Social-Medicine, p.8

Zanariah A Rahman, Ishak Md Shah, Nazihah Omar (2012).The relationship of emotional intelligence on students’ performance. World Journal of Social Sciences Vol. 2(3), pp. 201-208


  • There are currently no refbacks.


The editors and publisher of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors or its publisher. Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising therefrom.