Perbandingan Tahap Pengetahuan, Sikap dan Kesan Dadah Dalam Kalangan Remaja Sekolah Berisiko

Norhayati Ibrahim, Rozmi Ismail, Noh Amit, Noordeyana Tambi, Mohd Nasir Selamat, Muhammad Ajib Abd Razak, Nor Azri Ahmad, Nurul Shafini Shafurdin


The phenomenon of adolescents involved with drug abuse is a worrying and very serious issue. The influence of drug-related partners would have a bad effect on other teens, especially teenagers who are at risk. Therefore, this study aims to identify the extent of the level of knowledge of the drug, especially in relation to the differences of attitudes in terms of physical effects, hindering behaviors, involvement in drug-related activities and information on how to distribute, attitude towards self and future, and risk factors amongst students who did take drugs as compared to who never took it. This is a cross-sectional study involving 559 teenagers at risk, aged between 13-18 years’ old who are involved in SHIELDS Programme, camp based programme that was introduced by Agensi Anti dadah Kebangsaan (AADK) in collabaration with the Ministy of Education.  Findings showed that there is a significant difference between students who have taken drugs and those who have never used it for dimension of hindering behavior, involvement in drug-related activities and information on how to distribute, risk factors of the involvement of immediate family members with drugs and negative consequences of drug intake. Because the involvement with drugs negatively impacts adolescents, thus, the prevention of this deviance behavior must be implemented as best as possible to ensure that the future of these adolescents is upheld, to prevent them from falling into another crime.

Full Text:



Abdelrahman, A., Rodriguez, G., Ryan, J., French, J., & Weinbaum, D. (1998). The epidemiology of substance use among middle school students: The impact of school, familial, community and individual factors. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 8(1), 55-75.

Abot, I. (2005). Substance use among students and out of school youth in urban area of Nigeria. W.H.O. Geneva.

Abur, J. O. (2014). Drug and Substance Abuse Among Secondary School Students, in Embakasi District, Nairobi County. Research Project (C50/76067/2009).

Agensi Anti Dadah Kebangsaan. (2016). Maklumat Dadah 2016. Retrieved from

Akanbi, M. I., Augustina, G., Theophilus, A. B., Muhammad, M., & Ajiboye, A. S. (2015). Impact of substance abuse on academic performance among adolescent students of colleges of education in Kwara State, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(28), 108-112.

Alavi, H. R. (2011). The role of self-esteem in tendency towards drugs, theft and prostitution. Addiction & Health, 3(3-4), 119–124.

Alexander, J., & Parsons, B. V. (1982). Functional family therapy. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co.

American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. retrieved from

Azizi Yahaya, Halimah Ma’alip & Mohamad Hasan Omar. (2011). Permasalahan yang mempengaruhi pembelajaran dan pencapaian akademik pelajar bumiputra (tingkatan 4) di sekolah menengah teknik di Johor Bahru. Journal of Educational Psychology and Counseling, 2, 1-27.

Barnard, M. (2005). Drugs in the family: The impact on parents and siblings. Joseph Rowntree Foundation: New York.

Bavarian, N., Duncan, R., Lewis, K. M., Miao, A., & Washburn, I. J. (2015). Adolescent substance use following participation in a universal drug prevention program: examining relationships with program recall and baseline use status. Substance Abuse, 36(3), 359-367.

Becker, H. S. (1963). Outsiders: studies in the sociology of deviance. New York: The Free Press.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2004). (Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, No. 39.) Chapter 1 Substance Abuse Treatment and Family Therapy. Available from:

Diego, M., Field, T., & Sanders, C. (2003). Academic performance, popularity, and depression predict adolescent substance use. Adolescence, 38 (149), 35.

Embleton, L., Ayuku, D., Atwoli, L., Vreeman, R., & Braitstein, P. (2012). Knowledge, attitudes, and substance use practices among street children in Western Kenya, Substance Use & Misuse. 47 (11): 1234–1247. doi: 10.3109/10826084.2012.700678.

Feltis, L. M. (1991). Correlative aspects of adolescent substance abuse and self-esteem. Awareness, 19, 1-2.

Franken, A., Moffitt, T. E., Steglich, C. E., Dijkstra, J. K., Harakeh, Z., & Vollebergh, W. A. (2015). The role of self-control and early adolescents’ friendships in the development of externalizing behavior: The SNARE study. Journal of youth and adolescence, 45(9), 1800-1811. Frykholm, B. (1985) The drug career. Journal of Drug Issues, 15(3), 333-346.

Goldstein, P. J. (1985). The drugs/violence nexus: A tripartite conceptual framework. Journal of Drug Issues, 15, 493-506.

Guglielmo, R., Polak, R., & Sullivan, A. P. (1985). Development of self esteem as a function of familial reception. Journal of Drug Education, 15 (3), 277–84.

Henggeler, S. W., Schoenwald, S. K., Borduin, C. M., Rowland, M. D., & Cunningham, P. B. (1998). Multisystemic treatment of antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. New York: Guilford Press.

Hser, Y. I., Anglin, M. D., Grella, C., Longshore, D., & Prendergast, L. (1997). Drug treatment careers: a conceptual framework and existing research findings. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 14(6), 543-558.

Kikuvi, R. N. (2009). Determination of juvenile delinquency development among pupils in Machakos Rehabilitation Schools. Unpublished Masters Degree Thesis. Kenyatta University.

Kirby, J., Van der Sluijs, W., & Inchley, J. (2008). Young people and substance use; the influence of personal, social and environmental factors on substance use among adolescents in Scotland. Child and Adolescent Health Research Unit (CAHRU) University of Edinburgh.

Kounenou, K. (2010). Exploration of the relationship among drug use & alcohol drinking, entertainment activities and self-esteem in Greek University students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 1906–1910.

Liddle, H. A., Dakof, G. A., & Diamond, G. (1992). Adolescent substance abuse: Multidimensional family therapy in action. In: Kaufman, E., and Kaufmann, P., eds. Family Therapy of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. 2d ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 120–171.

MacArthur, J. D., & MacArthur, C. T. (2004). Self-Esteem. San Francisco, CA: Research Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health.

MacCoun, R., Kilmer, B., & Reuter, P. (2003). Research on drugs-crime linkages: The next generation. In Toward a drugs and crime research agenda for the 21st century (NCJ 194616). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Mahyuddin Arsat & Azizah Besar. (2011). Penyalahgunaan dadah di kalangan pelajar: satu kajian di Pusat Serenti Tiang Dua, Melaka. (tidak diterbitkan).

Marcondes, M. C., Flynn, C., Watry, D. D., Zandanatti, M., & Fox, H. S. (2010). Methamphetamine increases brain viral load and activates natural killer cells in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected monkeys. American Journal of Pathology, 177(1), 355-361.

May, T., Duffy, M., Few, B., & Hough, M. (2005). Understanding drug selling in Communities: Insider or outsider trading?. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, York Publishing Services Ltd.

McCrady, B. S., & Epstein, E. E. (1996). Theoretical bases of family approaches to substance abuse treatment. In: F. Rotgers, & D.S. Keller, eds. Treating Substance Abuse: Theory and Technique. New York: Guilford Press, 117–142.

Monti, M. P., Colby, M. S., & O’Leary, A. T. (2001). Adolescents, alcohol, and substance abuse: reaching teens through brief interventions. The Guilford Press: London.

Muthigani, A. (1995). Drug abuse: a rising concern among youth in secondary schools in Nairobi. Unpublished M.A Thesis, Catholic University of East Africa.

NACADA (2006) Drug and substance abuse in tertiary institutions in Kenya. Nairobi: NACADA.

Ndetei, M. (2004).United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes: A study on the linkages between drug abuse, injecting drug use and HIV/AIDS in Kenya. New York. WHO Publication.

Osdol, V. W. R., & Shane, D. G. (1982). An introduction to exceptional children. Lowa: Brown Publishers Dubuque.

Possi, M. K. (1996). Effects of drug abuse on cognitive and social behaviours: a potential problem among youth In Tanzania, UTAFITI (New Series). 3(1), 111-128.

Santrock, J. W. (1984). Adolescence: introduction. (3rd Edition) Dubukue, Lowa: Brown Publishers.

Steinglass, P., Bennett, L. A., Wolin, S. J., & Reiss, D. (1987). The alcoholic family. New York: BasicBooks.

Turner, K., West, P., Gordon, J., Young, R., & Sweeting, H. (2006). Could the peer group explain school differences in pupil smoking rates? An exploratory study. Social Science & Medicine, 62(10), 2513-2525.

Wan Mohd Fazli Wan Yusop. (2014). Faktor yang mendorong pencapaian akademik pelajar dalam program kimpalan di Kolej Vokasional. Tidak diterbitkan.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


The editors and publisher of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors or its publisher. Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising therefrom.