Pengaruh Atribusi Kemiskinan, Keadilan Dunia dan Gaya Pembuatan Keputusan terhadap Kesejahteraan Psikologi dalam Kalangan Kumpulan B40 di Malaysia (Poverty Attributions, Just World Belief, Decision Making Styles and Subjective Wellbeing of Low-Income Group (B40) in Malaysia)

Rozmi Ismail, Nurfatin Akila Jeli


This study examines how attribution towards poverty, just world belief and decision-making styles contribute to the psychological well-being of the low-income group or known as B40 in Malaysia. The study predicted that attribution towards poverty, just-world belief and decision making style are related to how they define the causes of poverty and thus will affect their subjective wellbeing.  There were 384 respondents of low income group from rural and sub-urban randomly selected and participated in this survey. The findings showed that B40 group in Malaysia perceived poverty as attributed to micro-environmental (eq. living in poverty and unable to feed family members) and fatalistic factors (eq. had illness). The study also found that perception towards belief in Just-world was the best predictor for subjective wellbeing. As for the decision-making style, majority used rational decision making style and dependent style. The implication of this study suggested that perception towards the just-world phenomenon and poverty attribution contribute in shaping  the negative mind-set  of this group towards government agenda and thus impacting their subjective well-being.

Full Text:



Abouchedid, K., & Nasser, R. (2001). Poverty attitudes and their determinants in Lebanon's plural society. Journal of Economic Psychology, 22(2), 271-282.

Agrawal, J., Murthy, P., Philip, M., Mehrotra, S., Thennarasu, K., John, J. P., Isaac, M. (2010). Socio-demographic Correlates of Subjective Well-being in Urban India. Social Indicators Research, 101(3), 419–434. doi:10.1007/s11205-010-9669-5

Aronson, Elliot; Wilson, Timothy D.; Akert, Robin M. (2010). Social Psychology Seventh Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. pp. 83–115. ISBN 0-13-814478-8.

Azlina Mohd Khir & Ma’rof Redzuan. (2013). Atribusi Kemiskinan dalam Kalangan Pelajar Orang Asli di Malaysia. Kertas kerja yang dibentangkan di International Conference on Social Science Research (ICSSR) 2013, 4-5 Jun 2013, Penang Malaysia anjuran World

Carvalho, Leandro S., Stephan Meier, and Stephanie W. Wang. (2016). "Poverty and Economic Decision-Making: Evidence from Changes in Financial Resources at Payday." American Economic Review, 106 (2): 260-84. DOI: 10.1257/aer.20140481.

Coscarelli, W. C. (1983). Decision making styles and the group process. Orchestrating spontaneous and systematic styles. Performance & Instruction Journal, 22(7), 22–25. doi:10.1002/pfi.4150220708

Cozzarelli, C., Tagler, M. J., & Wilkinson, A. V. (2002). Sex Roles, 47(11/12), 519–529. doi:10.1023/a:1022038200071

Cozzarelli, C., Wilkinson, A. V., & Tagler, M. J. (2001). Attitudes toward the poor and attributions for poverty. ournal of Social Issues, 57(2), 207–227.

Dalbert, C. (1999). Social Justice Research, 12(2),79–98.doi:10.1023/ a:1022091609047

Daganzo, M. A. A., & Bernardo, A. B. I. (2018). Socioeconomic status and problem attributions: The mediating role of sense of control. . Cogent Psychology, 5(1), 1525149.

Diaz, D., Blanco, A., Bajo, M., & Stavraki, M. (2015). Fatalism and well-being across Hispanic cultures: The Social Fatalism Scales (SFS). Social Indicators Research, 124, 929-945.

Diener, E. (2009). Subjective Well-Being. The Science of Well-Being, 11–58. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-2350-6_2

Dzuka, J., & Dalbert, C. (2006). The belief in a just world and subjective well-being in old age. Aging & Mental Health, 10(5), 439–444. doi:10.1080/13607860600637778

Easterlin, R. A. (2003). Explaining happiness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100, 11176-11183.

Fatima, I., & Suhail, K. (2010). Belief in a just world and subjective well-being: Mothers of normal and Down syndrome children. International Journal of Psychology, 45(6), 461–468.

Feagin, J.R. (1972). Poverty: We Still believe that God helps those who themselves. Psychology Today 6: 101-129.

Furnham, A. (1982). Why are the poor always with us? Explanations for poverty in Britain. British Journal of Social Psychology, 21(4), 311–322. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8309.1982.tb00553.x

Furnham, A., Swami, V., Voracek, M., & Stieger, S. (2009). Demographic Correlates of Just World and Unjust Beliefs in an Austrian Sample. Psychological Reports, 105(3), 989–994. doi:10.2466/pr0.105.3.989-994

Itang. (2013). Causes of poverty and ways to overcome it, Islamiconomic: Jurnal Ekonomi Islam, 4(1), 1-25.

Ige, K.D. & Nekhwevha, F.H. 2014. Causal Attributions for Poverty among Low Income Communities of Badia, Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences, 38(2), 205-218.

Itang. (2013). Causes of poverty and ways to overcome it (Penyebab Kemiskinan dan Cara Menanggulanginya). Islamiconomic: Jurnal Ekonomi Islam, 4(1), 1-25.

Hafer, C. I., & Correy, B.L. (1999). Mediators of the Relation Between Beliefs in a Just World and Emotional Responses to Negative Outcomes. Social Justice Research, 12 (3), 189-204.

Hellman, C. M., Muilenburg-Trevino, E. M., & Worley, J. A. (2008). The Belief in a Just World: An Examination of Reliability Estimates Across Three Measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 90(4),399–401.doi:10.1080/00223890802108238.

Jabatan Penerangan Negara. (2013). Arkib Berita: Jurang Kemiskinan Rakyat Malaysia Semakin Mengecil. [21 Oktober 2018]

Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. 2016. Penyiasatan Pendapatan & Kemudahan Asas dan Perbelanjaan Isi Rumah (HIS/HES) 2016

Jost, J. T., Banaji, M. R., & Nosek, B. A. (2004). A decade of system justification theory: Accumulated evidence of conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo. Political Psychology, 25, 881-919.

Kluegel, J. R., & Smith, E. R. (1986). Beliefs about inequality: Americans' views of what is and what ought to be. New York Routledge.

Ljubotina, O.D., & Ljubotina, D. (2007). Attributions of Poverty among Social Work and Non-social Work Students in Croatia. Croat Med Journal.

Lipkus, I. M., & Siegler, I. C. (1993). The Belief in a Just World and Perceptions of Discrimination. The Journal of Psychology, 127(4), 465–474. doi:10.1080/00223980.1993.9915583

Lipkus, I. M., Dalbert, C., & Siegler, I. C. (1996). The Importance of Distinguishing the Belief in a Just World for Self Versus for Others: Implications for Psychological Well-Being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22(7), 666–677. doi:10.1177/0146167296227002

Lucas, R. E. (2007). Adaptation and the Set-Point Model of Subjective Well-Being. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(2), 75–79. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00479.x

Mani, A., Mullainathan, S., Shafir, E., & Zhao, J. (2013). Poverty Impedes Cognitive Function. Science, 341(6149), 976–980. doi:10.1126/science.1238041.

Murnizam, H, Mohd Dahlan A. Malek, Ferlis Bahari, Norlizah Matshah & Webley, P. (2012). Attribution of poverty among Malaysian students in the United Kingdom. Southest Asia Psychology Journal 1: 22-30.

Nasser, R., Doumit, J., & Carifio, J. (2011). Well-being and belief in a just world among rest home residents. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 39(5), 655–670. doi:10.2224/sbp.2011.39.5.655

Nettle, D. (2005). Socio-economic status and subjective well-being.

Omoloba, O. (2016). Decision-making: Personal (individual) styles and Their consequences . [10 Jun 2019].

Robinson, J. W. (2009). American poverty cause beliefs and structured inequality legitimation. Sociological Spectrum, 29(4), 489-518.

Rozmi Ismail. (2011) Psikologi Sosial. Penerbit UKM, Bangi.

Salo, & C. M. Allwood, “Decision-making styles, stress and gender among investigators”, An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 34:1 (2011): 97-11

Shek, D. (2003). Chinese people's explanations of poverty: The Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale. Research on Social Work Practice, 13(5), 622-640.

Scott, S. G., & Bruce, R. A. (1995). Decision-Making Style: The Development and Assessment of a New Measure. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55(5), 818–831. doi:10.1177/0013164495055005017

Stroebe, K., Postmes, T., Täuber, S., Stegeman, A., & John, M.-S. (2015). Belief in a Just What? Demystifying Just World Beliefs by Distinguishing Sources of Justice. PLOS ONE, 10(3), e0120145. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120145

Townsend, P. (1979). Poverty in United Kingdom: A Survey of Household Resources and Standards of Living. London: Penguin.

Unit Perancang Ekonomi (EPU). (2016). Jabatan Perdana Menteri, Putrajaya.

Wilson, W.J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: the inner city, the underclass and public policy. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press.

Wenzel, K., Schindler, S., & Reinhard, M.-A. (2017). General Belief in a Just World Is Positively Associated with Dishonest Behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 8. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01770.

Yang, F., & Pang, J. S. (2016). Socioeconomic status, frailty, and subjective well-being: A moderated mediation analysis in elderly Chinese. Journal of Health Psychology, 23(7), 961–970. doi:10.1177/1359105316675211

Yu, X., Ren, G., Huang, S., & Wang, Y. (2018). Undergraduates’ Belief in a Just World and Subjective Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Sense of Control. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 46(5), 831–840. doi:10.2224/sbp.6912

Zuckerman, M. (1979). Attribution of success and failure revisited, or: The motivational bias is alive and well in attribution theory. Journal of Personality, 47(2), 245–287.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


The editors and publisher of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors or its publisher. Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising therefrom.