Nor Ba'yah Abdul Kadir, Roseliza Murni AB Rahman, Asmawati Desa


Social appearance is common among university students in Malaysia. In this study, we examine the reliability and validity of the SAAS in a sample of university students in Malaysia. This study aims to examine internal consistency and to validate the social appearance anxiety scale for Malaysian university students. Using a systematic random sampling, a set of questions was distributed to 400 academic college residents of a public university in Malaysia with a response rate of 86%. The student participants completed the social appearance anxiety scale, the social interaction anxiety scale, the brief fear of negative evaluation scale, and the general health questionnaire.  The internal consistency of questions within the social appearance anxiety scale was 0.92. The social appearance anxiety scale had good convergent validity with the social interaction anxiety scale (r=0.55), the brief fear of negative evaluation (r=0.69, p<.01), and the general health questionnaire (r=0.24, p<.01).  The findings suggested that the social appearance anxiety scale was comparable, reliable and suitable for use among undergraduate students in Malaysia.

Full Text:



Al-Naggar, R.A., Bobryshev, Y.V., & Alabsi, M. (2013). Perfectionism and social anxiety among university students in Malaysia. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 14(1), 51-58..

Carleton, R. N., McCreary, D. R., Norton, P. J., & Asmundson, G. J. (2006). Brief fear of negative evaluation scale—revised. Depression and Anxiety, 23(5), 297-303.

Hart, T. A., Flora, D. B., Palyo, S. A., Fresco, D. M., Holle, C., & Heimberg, R. G. (2008). Development and examination of the social appearance anxiety scale. Assessment, 15(1), 48-59.

Goldberg, (1978).

Levinson, C. A., Langer, J. K., & Rodebaugh, T. L. (2011). Self-construal and social anxiety: Considering personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(3), 355-359.

Levinson, C. A., & Rodebaugh, T. L. (2011). Validation of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale: Factor, convergent, and divergent validity. Assessment, 18(3), 350-356.

Levinson, C. A., Rodebaugh, T. L., White, E. K., Menatti, A., Weeks, J. W., Iacovino, J. M., & Warren, C. S. (2013). Social appearance anxiety, perfectionism, and fear of negative evaluation: Distinct or shared risk factors for social anxiety and eating disorders?. Appetite.

Mattick, R. P., & Clarke, J. C. (1998). Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety 1. Behaviour research and therapy, 36(4), 455-470.

Merikangas, K. R., He, J. P., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., ... & Swendsen, J. (2010). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in US adolescents: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication–Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(10), 980-989.

Purdon, C., Antony, M., Monteiro, S., & Swinson, R. P. (2001). Social anxiety in college students. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 15(3), 203-215.

Russell, G., & Shaw, S. (2009). A study to investigate the prevalence of social anxiety in a sample of higher education students in the United Kingdom. Journal of Mental Health, 18(3), 198-206.

Sidik, S. M., Arroll, B., & Goodyear-Smith, F. (2011). Prevalence of anxiety among women attending a primary care clinic in Malaysia. The British Journal of General Practice, 61(587), e326.

Swami, V., & Tovée, M. J. (2007). The relative contribution of profile body shape and weight to judgements of women's physical attractiveness in Britain and Malaysia. Body Image, 4(4), 391-396.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


The editors and publisher of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors or its publisher. Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising therefrom.