Systematic Review of Factors Influencing the Demand for Medical and Health Insurance in Malaysia
AbstractBackground: Medical and health insurance provides financial protection against the consequences of the occurrences of health risks. Different perceptions have led to resistance to change, as well as the acceptance level from Malaysians. It is fundamental to study the reception and acceptance of all types of insurance schemes by Malaysians and to identify the knowledge and information pertaining to reception by Malaysians.Methods: A systematic search was performed from six major search engines from 2013–2018 in searches of published articles on factors that influence the demand or willingness to pay for health insurance among Malaysians. There were nine articles included, in which personal factor was found to influence the most when demanding for health insurance.Results: Higher education level, younger age group, and good knowledge were associated with higher demand for health insurance. Higher household monthly income and the cost to pay were among the positively significant economic determinant factors to demand for medical insurance.Conclusions: Education and promotion are important to understand why such policies were introduced and how they intend to serve the public before implementing major policies. These elements capture the essence of ‘health promotion’, which is about enabling people to take control over their health and thereby, improving their health.
Department of Statistics Malaysia. https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php?r= column/cglossary2&menu_id=eWd2VFdIZ2xpdzBmT2Y0a0pweDcwQT09&keyword=N0ZVVUhuT3R6cThnVTVYaHlsZWV2dz09&release=1. 2015 [Accessed on 25 March 2018].
Prudential Assurance Malaysia Berhad. Product Details. https://www.prudential. com.my/en/our-products/products/prumy-medical-plus/. 2018 [Accessed on 16 April 2018].
Pitaloka DS. & Rizal A. Patient's Satisfaction in Antenatal Clinic Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Jurnal Kesihatan Masyarakat (Malaysia). 2006; 12(1): 1-10.
Yu CP, Whynes DK & Sach TH. Equity in Health Care Financing: The Case of Malaysia. International Journal for Equity in Health. 2008; 7(1): 15. doi:10.1186/1475-9276-7-15.
World Health Organization (WHO). Universal Health Coverage (UHC). http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs395/en/. 2017 [Accessed on 25 Mac 2018].
United Nations. Report: World Population Ageing 1950-2050. New York: United Nations. 2002.
Sing Chew Jit Poh. The Government Subsidies 98% of the Cost of Medical Services. Sibu, Malaysia: Sing Chew Jit Poh. 2005.
Almualm Y, Alkaff SE, Aljunid S & Alsagoff SS. Factors Influencing Support for National Health Insurance among Patients Attending Specialist Clinics in Malaysia. Global Journal of Health Science. 2013; 5(5): 1. doi:10.5539/gjhs.v5n5p1.
Shafie A & Hassali M. Willingness to Pay for Voluntary Community-Based Health Insurance: Findings from an Exploratory Study in the State of Penang, Malaysia. Social Science & Medicine. 2013; 96: 272-276. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.02.045.
Aizuddin AN & Aljunid SM. Ability to Pay for Future National Health Financing Scheme among Malaysian Households. Annals of Global Health. 2017; 83(3-4): 654-660. doi:10.1016/j.aogh.2017.10.002.
Zakaria Z, Azmi NM, Hassan NFHN, Salleh WA, Tajuddin MTHM., Sallem NRM & Noor JMM. The Intention to Purchase Life Insurance: A Case Study of Staff in Public Universities. Procedia Economics and Finance. 2016; 37: 358-365. doi:10.1016/S2212-5671(16)30137-X.
Salameh AMM, Juni MH & Hayati K. Willingness to Pay for Social Health Insurance among Academic Staff of A Public University in Malaysia. International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences. 2015; 2(5): 21-32.
Saimy IS, Juni MH & Rosliza A. Willingness to Pay for Health Insurance and Its Associated Factors among Staff of Local Authorities in Petaling District, Selangor, 2016. International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences. 2016; 3(6): 35-49.
Husniyah A, Norhasmah S & Amim OM. Regional Studies on Economic Growth, Financial Economics and Management: Assessing Predictors for Health Insurance Purchase among Malaysian Public Sector Employees. Switzerland: Springer Nature. pg 91-107. 2017.
Ng BWJ, Fong LH, Goon LT, Tan YC & Tan XY. The Determinants on Health and Life Insurance Demand among Malaysian. Kampar, Malaysia: UTAR. 2014.
Ministry of Finance Malaysia. Touch points 2018 Budget. Putrajaya, Malaysia: Ministry of Finance Malaysia. 2017.
Social Security Office of Retirement and Disability Policy. Social Security Programs throughout the World: Asia and the Pacific - Indonesia. https://www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/progdesc/ssptw/2016-2017/asia/indonesia.html. 2016 [Accessed on 14 March 2018].
Dzulkipli MR, Jamal A & Ma'on SN. The Framework of National Health Insurance (NHI) in Malaysia. International Information Institute (Tokyo) Information. 2016; 19(7B): 2913.
Owusu-Sekyere E & Chiaraah A. Demand for Health Insurance in Ghana: What Factors Influence Enrollment? American Journal of Public Health Research. 2014; 2: 27-35. doi:10.12691/ajphr-2-1-6.
Yuan C & Jiang Y. Factors Affecting the Demand for Insurance in China. Applied Economics. 2015; 47(45): 4855-4867. doi:10.1080/00036846.2015.1037 437.
Kansra P & Pathania G. A Study of Factor Affecting the Demand for Health Insurance In: Punjab. Journal of Management and Science. 2012; 2(4): 1-10.
Noor AA & Aljunid SM. Systematic Review of Factors Associated with Willingness to Pay for Health Financing Scheme. Malaysian J Public Heal Med. 2017; 17(2): 103-112.
Copyright (c) 2020 Ellyana Mohamad Selamat, Siti Rasidah Abd Ghani, Nurcholisah Fitra, Faiz Daud
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.IJPHR applies the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication byIJPHR, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. Under this Open Access license, you as the author agree that anyone can reuse your article in whole or part for any purpose, for free, even for commercial purposes. Anyone may copy, distribute, or reuse the content as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This facilitates freedom in re-use and also ensures that IJPHR content can be mined without barriers for the needs of research.