Wan Shahrazad Wan Sulaiman, Fauziah Ibrahim, Mohamad Suhaimi Mohd, Salina Nen, Norulhuda Sarnon, Khadijah Alavi


Identifying the personal characteristics of parolees that can reduce the likelihood of committing crimes is a great challenge to prison officers in order to ensure that rehabilitation process is handled successfully. The changes recommended to prisoners under parole are to increase their self-efficacy, developing optimism and maintaining a high level of resilience. This study employs a cross-sectional survey research design. A total of 280 prisoners undergoing parole monitoring were recruited as respondents. A set of questionnaire was used consisting of the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Positive Thinking Rating Scale and a self-developed resilience scale. Results showed that there were significant correlations between self-efficacy, optimism and resilience. Further, findings indicated that optimism partially mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and resilience. Implications are discussed in the context of preventing recidivism among parolees and strategies to increase effectiveness of rehabilitation in the parole system.

Full Text:



Alarid, F. L., Cromwell, P., & Del Carmen, V. R. (2008). Community-based corrections. (7th ed.). Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (1998). The psychology of criminal conduct (2nd ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.

Bahaman Abu Samah, Rahim Md. Sail, Jamilah Othman, Sidek Mohd. Noah, Zanariah Md. Nor & Noradrenalina Isah. (2008). Recidivism among inmates in Malaysia. Paper presented at the Research Output Seminar 2008 at Universiti Putra Malaysia on 23 Disember 2008.

Bandura, A. (1995). Self-efficacy in changing societies. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.

Benda, B. B. (2001). Factors that discriminate between recidivists, parole violators, and nonrecidivists in a 3-year follow-up of boot camp graduates. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 45, 711-729.

Bonta, J. (1996). Risk-needs assessment and treatment. In A. Harland (Ed.), Choosing correctional options that work: Defining the demand and evaluating the supply, (pp. 18-68). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Brodhagen, A., & Wise, D. (2008). Optimism as a mediator between the experience of child abuse, other traumatic events, and distress. Journal of Family Violence, 23(6), 403-411.

Capian, M. J., & Kinnevy, C. S. (2010). National surveys of state paroling authorities models and service delivery. Federal Probation, 74(1), 34-43.

Conklin, E. J. (1998). Criminology (6th ed.). Toronto: Allyn and Bacon.

Ellis, T., & Marshall, P. (2000). Does parole work? A post-release comparison of reconviction rates for paroled and non-paroled prisoners. The Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 33(3), 300-317.

Fougere, A., Daffern, M., & Thomas, T. (2012). Toward an empirical conceptualisation of resilience in young adult offenders. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 23 (5-6), 706-721.

Garmezy, N. (1990). A closing note: Reflections on the future. In Rolf, J., Masten, A., Cicchetti, D., Nuechterlein, K., & Weintraub, S. (Eds.). Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology, (pp. 527-534). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gendreau, P. (1996). Offender rehabilitation: What we know and what needs to be done. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 23, 144-161.

Gendreau, P., Little, T., & Goggin, C. (1996). A meta-analysis of the predictors of adult offender recidivism: What works! Criminology, 34, 575-607.

Gutman, L. M., & Midgley, C. (2000). The role of protective factors in supporting the academic achievement of poor African American students during the middle school transition. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 223-248.

Hill, J. K. (2009). Victimization, resilience and meaning-making: Moving forward in strength. Victims of Crime Research Digest, Issue No. 2,; accessed on 2.11.2011.

Hogan, G. G. (1990). The relationship of self-efficacy, motivation and feedback to substance abuse relapse in offenders in treatment. Doctoral dissertation, Catholic University of America. Dissertation Abstracts International, 51(5-B), 2662.

Hoge, R. D. (1999). An expanded role for psychological assessments in juvenile justice systems. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 26, 251-266.

Karademas, E. C. (2006). Self-efficacy, social support and well being: The mediating role of optimism. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1281-1290.

Kostić, M. (2010). Victimology: A contemporary theoretical approach to crime and its victims. Facta universitatis. Series Law and Politics. - Niš: Univerzitet, 8(1), 65-78.

Kroner, D. G., & Loza, W. (2001). Evidence for the efficacy of self-report in predicting nonviolent and violent criminal recidivism. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16, 168-177.

Lerner, R. M., Easterbrooks, M. A., & Mistry, J. (2012). Foundations of development across the life span. In R. M. Lerner, M. A., Easterbrooks, & J. Mistry (Eds.), Handbook of Psychology, Volume 6: Developmental Psychology (2nd edition). (pp. 3-17). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Li Liu, Shu Hu, Lie Wang, Guoyuan Sui & Lei Ma. (2013). Positive resources for combating depressive symptoms among Chinese male correctional officers: perceived organizational support and psychological capital. BMC Psychiatry, 13, 89.

Liebert, R. M., & Spiegler, M. D. (1990). Personality: Strategies and issues. (6th. ed.). Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/Cole.

Longo, D. A., Lent, R. W., & Brown, S. D. (1992). Social cognitive variables in the prediction of client motivation and attrition. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39(4), 447-452.

Loza, W., & Loza-Fanous, A. (2001). The effectiveness of the self-appraisal questionnaire in predicting offenders’ post release outcome: A comparison study. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 28, 105-121.

Loza, W., Dhaliwal, G., Kroner, D. G., & Loza-Fanous, A. (2000). Reliability, construct, and concurrent validities of the self-appraisal questionnaire:Atool for assessing violent and nonviolent recidivism. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 27, 356-374.

Luthar, S. S., & Zigler, E. (1991). Vulnerability and competence: A review of research on resilience in childhood. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 6–22.

Malaysian Prison Department, (2009). Yearly report. Kajang: Selangor.

Masten, A. S. (1994). Resilience in individual development: Successful adaptation despite risk and adversity. In Wang, M. C., & Gordon, E. W. (Eds.). Educational resilience in inner-city America: Challenges and prospects, (pp. 3–25). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Masten, A., Best, K., & Garmezy, N. (1990). Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 425–444.

Mohamad Fadzil Che Din, Kamsiah Ismail, Wan Marzuki Wan Jaafar, Taqiyuddin Abd. Mukti, Amir Shariffuddin Abd. Majid, Ahmad Zaini Abu Hassan, Abd. Zaini Ibrahim, Mohamed Ali, Norzila Bohani and Mohamad

Solehuddin Shuid. (2005). Module for the Implementation of Psychological Tests: The Parole Case at the Malaysian Prison Department.

Morris, T. (1971). The criminal area. London: Routledge & Кegan Paul.

Petersilia, J. (2000). Prisoners returning to communities: Political, economic, and social consequences. In Sentencing and Corrections: Issues for the 21st Century. National Institute of Justice: Papers from the Executive Sessions on Sentencing and Corrections. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice.

Rumgay, J. (2004). Scripts for safer survival: pathways out of female crime. The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 43(4), 405–419.

Rutter, M. (1987). Parental mental disorder as a psychiatric risk factor. In Hales, R., & Frances, A. (Eds.). American Psychiatric Association Annual Review, Vol. 6, 647–663. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Rutter, M. (1990). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. In Rolf, J., Masten, A. S., Cicchetti, D., Nuechterlein, K.H., & Weintraub, S. (Eds.). Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology, (pp. 181–214). New York: Cambridge.

Sappington, A. A. (1996). Relationships among prison adjustment, beliefs and cognitive coping style. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 40(1), 54-62.

Scheier, L. M., Botvin, G. J., Griffin. K. W., & Diaz, T. (2000). Dynamic growth models of self-esteem and adolescent alcohol use. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 20, 178-209.

Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4(3), 219-247.

Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston. Measures in health psychology: A user‟s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.

Segovia, F., Moore, J. L., Linnville, S. E., Hoyt, R. E., & Hain, R. E. (2012). Optimism predicts resilience in repatriated prisoners of war: A 37-year longitudinal study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(3), 330–336.

Siegel, J. L. (2009). Criminology (10th ed.). Australia: Thomson-Wadsworth.

Solomon, L. A. (2006). Does parole supervision work? Research findings and policy opportunities. Perspectives: American Probation and Parole Association, 26-75.

Sun Kyung Kang, & Wook Kim. (2011). A study of battered women’s purpose of life and resilience in South Korea. Asian Social Work and Policy Review, 5(3), 145-159.

Travis, J. (2000). “But They All Come Back: Rethinking Prisoner Reentry.” In Sentencing and Corrections: Issues for the 21st Century. National Institute of Justice: Papers from the Executive Sessions on Sentencing and Corrections. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice.

Wagnild, G. M. & Young, H.M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Management, 1(2), 165 – 178.

Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1992). Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Werner, E., & Smith, R. (1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A study of resilient children. New York: McGraw-Hill.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


The editors and publisher of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors or its publisher. Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising therefrom.