Psikologi Penagihan Dadah: Satu Tinjauan Literatur (Drug Addiction Psychology: A Literature Review)

Nazira Sadiron, Mohammad Rahim Kamaluddin, Wan Shahrazad Wan Sulaiman, Rozainee Khairudin


Drug addiction is a social disease that imposes a serious implication towards the nation’s development and security. Statistik Agensi Antidadah Kebangsaan in 2017 shows that there is an abrupt increase in drug addicts that is dominated by males aged from 20 to 40 years old. Various factors have been identified as contributing  factors in drug addction.; and intrinsic factors, namely psychological factors often are assumed as the contributing factors that cause one to engage in drug addiction. Therefore, the current paper aims to present psychological factors that are related to drug addiction. In the context of psychology, there are four main psychological aspects: personality, emotional, cognition and behavioural that are explored in relation to drug addiction. Archival and metasynthesis methods were employed to collect resources. It was done through electronic and manual searches. The current paper is hoped to provide resources for experts and related agencies in drawing a psychological intervention that is suitable for the drug addicts as well as individuals who are at high risk to fall into drug addiction.


Full Text:



Adam bin Mohammad. 2006. Tingkahlaku Penagihan Semula Punca-Punca Penagihan Dan Pemulihan Kerohanian Menurut Perspektif Islam. Desertasi.

Amey, C. H., Albrecht, S. L. & Miller, M. K. 1996. Racial Differences in Adolescent Drug Use: The Impact of Religion. Substance Use & Misuse, 31(10), 1311–1332. doi:10.3109/10826089609063979

ASAM. 2011. Definition of Addiction. American Society of Addiction Medicine,.

Bard, J. a. 2006. Faith Community Nurses and the Prevention and Management of Addiction Problems. Journal of Addictions Nursing, 17(2), 115–120. doi:10.1080/10884600600668302

Baxter, P. & Jack, S. 2008. Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4), 544–559. doi:citeulike-article-id:6670384

Been, C. A. 2011. Penyeludupan Dadah Oleh Warga Asing : Kajian Terhadap Modus Operandi Jenis Jenis Dadah Dan Impak Keatas Keselamatan Malaysia. Vasa, 1–128.

Belin, D., Mar, A. C., Dalley, J. W., Robbins, T. W. & Everitt, B. J. 2008. High impulsivity predicts the switch to compulsive cocaine-taking. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5881), 1352–5. doi:10.1126/science.1158136

Bistaman, Mohammad Nasir, Ahmad, A., Mohdnor, A., Jusoh, ahmad jazimin, Mustafa, mohd bazlan, Ismail, N., Jais, Samsiah mohd et al. 2015. Profil Tingkah Laku Remaja Berisiko Mengambil Dadah. Journal Antidadah Malaysia, (1), 41. Retrieved from

Braun, V. & Clarke, V. 2006. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101. doi:10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Buerah, T., Shahrin, H., Mohamad, N. A. & Maznah, A. 2015. Faktor risiko belia terlibat dalam penyalahgunaan dadah dan cadangan penyelesaiannya menerusi model pembangunan belia muslim terpimpin. Jurnal Antidadah Malaysia, 9(1), 12.

Cameron, R. 2011. Mixed Methods Research: The Five Ps Framework: One stop search. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 9(2), 96–108. doi:ISSN 1477-7029

Chemi, N., Abdullah, N., Singh, A. & Isa, M. F. M. 2014. A review of substance abuse research in malaysia. Medical Journal of Malaysia, 69(August), 55–58.

De Mojá, C. a & Spielberger, C. D. 1997. Anger and drug addiction. Psychological reports, 81(1), 152–154. doi:10.2466/pr0.1997.81.1.152

DeJong, C. a, van den Brink, W., Harteveld, F. M. & van der Wielen, E. G. 1993. Personality disorders in alcoholics and drug addicts. Comprehensive psychiatry, 34(2), 87–94. doi:

DiClemente, C. C. 1999. Motivation for Change: Implications for Substance Abuse Treatment. Psychological Science, 10(3), 209–213. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00137

Diego, U. C. S. 2011. Developmental model of substance abuse relapse. doi:10.1300/J122v22n03_06

Eysenck, H. J. 1997. Addiction, personality and motivation. Human Psychopharmacology, 12(SUPPL. 2), 79–87. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1077(199706)12:2+3.0.CO;2-T

Fauziah, I., Arifin, Z., Wan Sharazad, W. S., Lukman, Z. M., Roseliza Murni, A. R., Zainah, A. Z. & Siti Fatihah, G. 2010. Measurement of Drug Addicts.Pdf. The Social Science, Medwell Journals,.Fauziah Ibrahim, 2009. Factors Effecting Drug Relapse in Malaysia : An Empirical Evidence (2001), 37–44.

Fauziah Ibrahim, Samah, B. A., Talib, M. A. & Sabran, M. S. 2009. Faktor Menyumbang Kepada Penagihan Relaps Dalam Kalangan Penagih Dadah PUSPEN Di Semenanjung Malaysia. Jurnal AADK, Jld 5.

Kamaluddin, M. R., Shariff, N. S., Othman, A., Ismail, K. H. & Saat, G. A. M. 2015. Linking Psychological Traits with Criminal Behaviour: A Review. Journal of Psychiatry, 16(2), 13–25.

Moss, H. B. & Tarter, R. E. 1993. Substance Abuse, Aggression, and Violence: What Are the Connections ?: Clinical Update. American Journal on Addictions, 2(2), 149–160. doi:10.3109/10550499309115954

Scherbaum, N. & Specka, M. 2008. Factors influencing the course of opiate addiction. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research,. doi:10.1002/mpr.244

Schmitt, D. P., Allik, J., McCrae, R. R. & Benet-Martinez, V. 2007. The Geographic Distribution of Big Five Personality Traits: Patterns and Profiles of Human Self-Description Across 56 Nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38(2), 173–212. doi:10.1177/0022022106297299

Sellman, D. 2010. The 10 most important things known about addiction. Addiction,. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02673.x

Sinha, R. 2001. How does stress increase risk of drug abuse and relapse? Psychopharmacology, 158(4), 343–359. doi:10.1007/s002130100917

Alquist, J. L. & Baumeister, R. F. 2012. Self-control and addiction. APA addiction syndrome handbook, Vol. 1: Foundations, influences, and expressions of addiction.,. doi:10.1037/13751-008

Anderson, K. G., Ramo, D. E. & Brown, S. A. 2006. Life stress, coping and comorbid youth: An examination of the stress-vulnerability model for substance relapse. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 38(3), 255–262. doi:10.1080/02791072.2006.10399851

Bacciardi, S., Maremmani, A. G. I., Rovai, L., Rugani, F., Lamanna, F., Dell’Osso, L., Pacini, M. et al. 2012. Aggressive behaviour and heroin addiction. Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems, 14(4), 81–94. Retrieved from

Blackburn, R. 2006. What is personality disorder? Personality disorder and community mental health teams: A practitioner’s guide., hlm.21–39. doi:10.1002/9780470713594.ch2

Bowden-Jones, O., Iqbal, M. Z., Tyrer, P., Seivewright, N., Cooper, S., Judd, A. & Weaver, T. 2004. Prevalence of personality disorder in alcohol and drug services and associated comorbidity. Addiction,. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00813.x

Bowler, J. L., Bowler, M. C. & James, L. R. 2011. The cognitive underpinnings of addiction. Substance Use and Misuse, 46(8), 1060–1071. doi:10.3109/10826084.2011.552934

Cabanac, M. 2002. What is emotion? Behav Processes, 60(2), 69–83. Retrieved from

D’Arcy, C. E. 2016. Influence of stress on substance use: Age-associated variability in molecular and behavioral outcomes. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering,. Retrieved from

De Mojá, C. a & Spielberger, C. D. 1997. Anger and drug addiction. Psychological reports, 81(1), 152–154. doi:10.2466/pr0.1997.81.1.152

Ersche, K. D., Jones, P. S., Williams, G. B., Turton, A. J., Robbins, T. W. & Bullmore, E. T. 2012. Abnormal Brain Structure Implicated in Stimulant Drug Addiction. Science,. doi:10.1126/science.1214463

Everitt, B. J. & Robbins, T. W. 2005. Neural systems of reinforcement for drug addiction: From actions to habits to compulsion. Nature Neuroscience, 8(11), 1481–1489. doi:10.1038/nn1579

Eysenck, H. J. 1997. Addiction, personality and motivation. Human Psychopharmacology, 12(SUPPL. 2), 79–87. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1077(199706)12:2+3.0.CO;2-T

Facer, C. 2015. WHAT IS YOUR PERSONALITY TYPE? Nursing Standard, 29(44), 64–65. Retrieved from


Fooladi, N., Jirdehi, R. & Mohtasham-Amiri, Z. 2014. Comparison of Depression, Anxiety, Stress and Quality of Life in Drug Abusers with Normal Subjects. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 159, 712–717. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.12.459

Franques, P., Auriacombe, M. & Tignol, J. 2000. [Addiction and personality]. Encephale, 26(1), 68–78. Retrieved from

Garami, J., Valikhani, A., Parkes, D., Haber, P., Mahlberg, J., Misiak, B., Frydecka, D. et al. 2018. Examining Perceived Stress, Childhood Trauma and Interpersonal Trauma in Individuals With Drug Addiction. Psychological Reports,. doi:10.1177/0033294118764918

Garavan, H. 2011. Impulsivity and Addiction. Neuroimaging in Addiction, hlm.159–176. doi:10.1002/9781119998938.ch7

García-del-Castillo, J. A., Dias, P. C., Pérez, J. D., del Castillo López, Á. G., Antonio Garcia-del-Castillo, J., Cesar Dias, P., Diaz-Perez, J. et al. 2012. The mediating role of self-regulation in cigarette smoking and alcohol use among young people. Anales de Psicologia, 28(1), 1–10. Retrieved from

Gould, T. J. 2010. Addiction and cognition. Addiction science & clinical practice, 5(2), 4–14. Retrieved from

Gourlay, D. 2005. Chronic pain and addiction. Core Topics in Pain, hlm.Vol. 9780521857789, 305–310. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511544583.048

Hall, W. & Carter, A. 2015. Are addicted individuals responsible for their behaviour? Free Will and the Brain: Neuroscientific, Philosophical, and Legal Perspectives, hlm.146–167. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139565820.009

Hänninen, V. & Koski-Jännes, A. 1999. Narratives of recovery from addictive behaviours. Addiction, 94(12), 1837–1848. doi:10.1046/j.1360-0443.1999.941218379.x

Henkel, D. 2011. Unemployment and Substance Use: A Review of the Literature (1990-2010). Current Drug Abuse Reviewse, 4(1), 4–27. doi:10.2174/1874473711104010004

Homayouni, A. 2011. The role of personality traits and religious beliefs in tendency to addiction. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 851–855. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.165

Johnson, H. D. & Young, D. S. 2002. Addiction, Abuse, and Family Relationships. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 1(4), 29–47. doi:10.1300/J233v01n04_02

Kernberg, O. F. 2016. What Is Personality? Journal of Personality Disorders, 30(2), 145–156. doi:10.1521/pedi.2106.30.2.145

Khaledian, M., Khanbani, F., Maleki, H., Sepanta, M. & Pourmavedat, K. 2014. Comparing Personality Characteristics and Self Esteem of the Addicts and Non Addicts. Journal of Social Issues & Humanities, 2(3), 3–6.

Kreek, M. J., Nielsen, D. a, Butelman, E. R. & LaForge, K. S. 2005. Genetic influences on impulsivity, risk taking, stress responsivity and vulnerability to drug abuse and addiction. Nature neuroscience, 8(11), 1450–1457. doi:10.1038/nn1583

Le Bon, O., Basiaux, P., Streel, E., Tecco, J., Hanak, C., Hansenne, M., Ansseau, M. et al. 2004. Personality profile and drug of choice; A multivariate analysis using Cloninger’s TCI on heroin addicts, alcoholics, and a random population group. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 73(2), 175–182. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2003.10.006

Le Moal, M. 2009. Drug Abuse: Vulnerability and Transition to Addiction. Pharmacopsychiatry, 42(S 01), S42–S55. doi:10.1055/s-0029-1216355

Manna, V. 2007. Stress, drug abuse and addiction: neurobiological and behavioral aspects. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 42(5), 308–319.

Milivojevic, D., Milovanovic, S. D., Jovanovic, M., Svrakic, D. M., Svrakic, N. M., Svrakic, S. M. & Cloninger, C. R. 2012. Temperament and character modify risk of drug addiction and influence choice of drugs. American Journal on Addictions, 21(5), 462–467. doi:10.1111/j.1521-0391.2012.00251.x

Moeller, F. G. 2012. Sex, stress, and drug cues in addiction. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(4), 351–353. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12010041

Moss, H. B. & Tarter, R. E. 1993. Substance Abuse, Aggression, and Violence: What Are the Connections ?: Clinical Update. American Journal on Addictions, 2(2), 149–160. doi:10.3109/10550499309115954

Pedersen, M. U. 2016. A review of Literature on Drug and Substance Abuse amongst Youth and Young Women in South Africa. YouthDAT project, 1–36.

Pihl, R. O. & Peterson, J. 1995. Drugs and aggression: correlations, crime and human manipulative studies and some proposed mechanisms. Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN, 20(2), 141–149.

Rascanu, R. 2005. The Personality Profile of the Drug Addict. Europe’s Journal of Psychology; Vol 1, No 1 (2005): February,. Retrieved from

Rovai, L., Maremmani, A. G. I., Bacciardi, S., Rugani, F., Pacini, M., Perugi, G., Dell’Osso, L. et al. 2013. Drug addiction: Affective temperaments as risk factors. Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems, 15(2), 19–28.

Saxe, G. N. 2014. A drug to rob grief and anger of their sting and banish all painful memories. Biological Psychiatry,. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.06.013

Schoenbaum, G., Roesch, M. R. & Stalnaker, T. A. 2006. Orbitofrontal cortex, decision-making and drug addiction. Trends in Neurosciences,. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2005.12.006

Shahrazad, W. S. W., Lukman, Z. M., Murni, A. R. S., Zainah, A. Z., Fauziah, I., & Arifin, Z. (2011). Personality traits as predictors towards readiness to change among female drug addicts. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(2), 134-140.

Sinha, R. 2008. Chronic stress, drug use, and vulnerability to addiction. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,. doi:10.1196/annals.1441.030

Spooner, C. & Hetherington, K. 2004. Social determinants of drug use / Catherine Spooner and Kate Hetherington. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre Sydney, (228), xv,291p. doi:10.2105/AJPH.79.4.459

Susanti, H. 2017. The Changes Of Behaviors And Cognitive Functions By Cognitive Behavioural Therapy In The Drug Abusers. Jurnal Ners, 5(2), 171–180. doi:10.20473/JN.V5I2.3955

Tam, C. & Foo, Y. (n.d.). Contributory Factors of Drug Abuse and the Accessibility of Drugs 4(9), 1621–1625.

Tiffany, S. T. 1990. A cognitive model of drug cravings and drug-use behavior: Role of automatic and nonautomatic processes. Psychological Review, 97(2), 147–168.

Tiffany, S. T. & Conklin, C. A. 2000. A cognitive processing model of alcohol craving and compulsive alcohol use. Addiction, 95(8), 145–153. doi:10.1080/09652140050111717

Uhart, M. & Wand, G. S. 2009. Stress, alcohol and drug interaction: An update of human research. Addiction Biology,. doi:10.1111/j.1369-1600.2008.00131.x

Verdejo-Garcia, A., Chong, T. T. J., Stout, J. C., Yücel, M. & London, E. D. 2018. Stages of dysfunctional decision-making in addiction. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior,. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2017.02.003

VOLLMER, F. 1974. Gordon Allport on the definition of personality. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 15(1), 1–3. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.1974.tb00548.x

Wiers, R. W. & Stacy, A. W. 2005. Handbook of implicit cognition and addiction. Handbook of Implicit Cognition and Addiction, 15(6), 1–552. doi:10.4135/9781412976237


  • There are currently no refbacks.


The editors and publisher of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors or its publisher. Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising therefrom.