Hubungan antara Stigma terhadap Anak Yatim AIDS, Tekanan Persekitaran dan Pengurusan Penjagaan Kanak-kanak HIV/AIDS di Institusi Perlindungan Kanakkanak: Satu Kajian Awal (The Relationship between Stigma towards Orphans with AIDS, Environmental Stress, and HIV/AIDS Children Care Case Management in a Child Protection Institution: A Preliminary Study)

Ezarina Zakaria, Nur Saadah Mohamad Aun, Wan Nornazmiera Wan Hamat


The management of child care cases toward children with HIV/AIDS in institution are still receiving less attention whereas day after day, there has been an increase in the number of shelters existed for children. This article discusses the initial findings of the study which aimed to identify the relationship between the stigma towards orphans with AIDS and environmental stress within the institution and the management of HIV/AIDS child care case. A total of 140 caretakers in 7 child protection institutions were selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected using a feedback form. Measurement tools used were from Hennepin County Case Management Survey, Manual Measuring HIV Stigma and Discrimination Among Health Facility Staff Questionnaire and HSE Management Standards Indicator Tools. Data analysis found that a total of 98.6% respondents showed a higher level of case management, 80.7% respondent had a moderate level of stigma and a total of 83.6% showed average level of environmental stress. Pearson Correlation analysis showed that there were: i) significant relationship between environmental stress with case management, r(140) = .193, p<0.05; ii) significant negative relationship between stigma and case management, r(140) = -0.261, p<0.05; and iii) significant relationship between stigma towards children with AIDS with environmental stress among their caretakers, r(140) = .0732, p<0.01. Besides that, results showed that 76% respondents never received special training in managing HIV/AIDS children. Therefore, it is recommended that every HIV/AIDS child protection institute needs to prepare a regular training. Caretakers should be provided with shelter management courses that provide various background of HIV/AIDS children’s case, a need towards handling children with HIV/AIDS specifically, skills in handling stigma towards HIV and training on how to manage institutional environmental stress. Keywords: case management, HIV/AIDS child care, AIDS orphans stigma, environmental stress, child protection institution

Full Text:



Aishah@Eshah Haji Mohamed, Fatimah

Yusooff, A. A. Bidin, & Zaidah

Mustapha. (2011). Emosi dan punca

anak wanita HIV ditempatkan di

rumah perlindungan. Jurnal Sains

Sosial dan Kemanusiaan, 6, 321-

Beardsley, J. (2010). Measuring the

degree of HIV-related stigma and

discrimination in health facilities

and providers. Futures Group,

Health Policy Initiative.

Church, K., Wringe, A., Fakudze, P.,

Kikuvi, J., Simelane, D., & Mayhew,

S. H. (2013). Are integrated HIV

services less stigmatizing than standalone models of care? A

comparative case study from

Swaziland. Department of Global

Health and Development, London

School of Hygiene & Tropical


Coleman, J. D., Lindley, L., Annang, L.,

Saunders, R. P., & Gaddist, B. W.

(2012). Development of a

framework for HIV/AIDS

Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia 32 (4) (2018): 1-17 ISSN-2289-8174 15

preventions programs in African

American Churches. AIDS

Patients.Care and STDs, 26(2), 116-

Dill, A. E. P. (2001) Managing to care:

Case management and service

system reform. New York: Walter de


Eaton, L. A., Driffin, D. D., Kegler, C.,

Smith, H., Conway-Washington, C.,

White, D., & Cherry, C. (2015). The

role of stigma and medical mistrust

in the routine health care

engagement of black men who have

sex with men. American Journal of

Public Health, 105(2), 75-82.

Ekstrand, M. L., Ramakrishna, J., Bharat,

S., & Heylen, E. (2013). Prevalence

and drivers of HIV stigma among

health providers in urban India:

Implications for interventions.

Journal of the International AIDS

Society, 16, 18717.

Eurochild. (2010). Children in alternative

care: National surveys (2nd ed).

Brussels, Belgium; Eurochild.

Fauziah, R., Mukhi, A. A., Perveen, S.,

Gul, X., Iqbal, S. P., Qazi, S. A.,

Syed, I. A., Shaikh, K. H., & Wafa,

A. (2014). Improving community

case management of diarrhoea and

pneumonia in district Badin,

Pakistan through a cluster

randomised study: The NIGRAAN

trial protocol. Implementation

Science, 10(9), 186.

Fergusson, P., Chikaphupha, K.,

Bongololo, G., Makwiza, I.,

Nyirenda, L. Chinkhumba, J.

Aslam, A., & Theobald, S. (2010).

Quality of care in nutritional

rehabilitation in HIV-endemic

Malawi: Caregiver perspectives.

Maternity Child Nutrition, 6(10), 89-

George. A, Young, M., & Nefdt, R.

(2010). Community health workers

providing government community

case management for child survival

in sub-saharan Africa: Who are they

and what are they expected to

do? American Journal of Tropical

Medicine and Hygiene, 87(5), 85–

Karen, A. M., Scott, A. E., Linda,

B., Jacquie, S., Carla, E. P., Wendy,

S. L., & Maria, N. (2013). A

statewide case management,

surveillance, and outcome evaluation

system for children with special

health care needs. ISRN Nursing, 10,

Kwena, Z. A., Camlin C. S., Shisanya, C.

A., Mwanzo, I., & Bukusi, E. A.

(2013). Short-term mobility and the

risk of HIV infection among married

couples in the fishing communities

along Lake Victoria, Kenya. Journal

of Pone, 8, 54-523.

Lennon, C. A., White, A. C., Finitsis, D.,

Pishori, A., Hernandez, D., Kelly, D.

M., Overstreet, N. M., Kane, S. K.,

& Lanoutte, G. A. (2013). Service

priorities and unmet service needs

among people living with

HIV/AIDS: Results from a

nationwide interview of HIV/AIDS

housing organizations. AIDS Care:

Psychological and Socio-medical

Aspects of AIDS/HIV, 25, 1083-

Malaysian AIDS Council. (2015).

Malaysia statistics: Overview of

HIV/AIDS in Malaysia. Dicapai


Marcatto, F., Colautti, L., Filon, F. L.,

Luis, O., & Ferrante, D. (2014). The

HSE management standards

indicator tool: Concurrent and

construct validity. Journal Medicine

& Health, 64(5), 365-371.

Messer, L. C., Pence, B. W., Whetten, K.,

Whetten, R., & Nathan. (2010).

Prevalence and predictors of HIVrelated stigma among institutionaland community-based caregivers of

orphans and vulnerable children

living in five less-wealthy countries.

Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia 32 (4) (2018): 1-17 ISSN-2289-8174 16

Public Health Research, 10, 504-

Nalasamy, P. R., & Siti Hajar Abu Bakar.

(2013). Hak kanak-kanak dalam

jagaan institusi awam (ms. 978-

. Universiti Malaya, Kuala


Natasha, A., Dobrova, K., Marinus, H.,

Van, I., Marian, J., Bakermans, K.,

& Femmie, J. (2010). Effect of

perinatal HIV infection and early

institutional rearing on physical and

cognitive development of children in

Ukraine. Journal of Child

Development, 81, 237-251.

Nyblade, L., Jain, A., & Grossman, C.

(2013). Measuring HIV stigma and

discrimination among health facility

staff: Standardized Brief

Questionnaire. Health Policy Project.

O’Brien, J. (1995). Case management

evaluation 1995. Ohio: Butler

County Board of Mental

Retardation/ Developmental


Puteri Hayati Megat Ahmad. (2013).

Kemahiran dan pengurusan kes-kes

kaunseling. Kota Kinabalu: Penerbit

Universiti Malaysia Sabah.

Rajwani, M. Zain. (2012). HIV/AIDS & isu

stigma. (Ed. Ke-2). Sintok:

Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM).

Santos, M. D., Kruger, P., Mellors, S. E.,

Wolvaardt, G., & Ryst, E. V. D.

(2014). An exploratory survey

measuring stigma and discrimination

experienced by people living with

HIV/AIDS in South Africa: The

people living with HIV stigma index.

Journal of Public Health, 27, 14-80.

Shahrul Asyikin Shamsudin. (2012).

Stigma, diri dan strategi

menghindari stigma dalam kalangan

penghidap HIV positif. Tesis Sarjana

Falsafah, Universiti Kebangsaan


Sekoni, O. O., & Owoaje, E. T. (2013).

HIV/AIDS stigma among primary

health care workers in Ilorin,

Nigeria. African Journal of Medicine

and Medical Sciences, 42(1), 47-57.

Sengupta, S., Banks, B., Jonas, D., Miles,

M. S., & Smith, G. C. (2011). HIV

interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS

stigma: A systematic review. AIDS

Behavior, 15(6), 1075-1087.

Sullivan, S. G., Xu, J., Feng, Y., Su, S.,

Xu, C., & Ding, X. (2010).

Stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors

toward PLHA in rural China. AIDS

Care, 22(1), 104-111.

Surkon, P. J., Mukherjee, J. S., Eustache,

E., Louis, E., Paul, T. J., Lambert,

W., Scanlan, F. C., Oswald, C. M.,

& Smith Fawzi, M. C. (2010).

Perceived discrimination and stigma

toward children affected by

HIV/AIDS and their HIV-positive

caregivers in central Haiti. AIDS

Care, 22(7), 803-815.

Ugarte, W. J., Hogberg, U., Valladares, E.

C., & Essen, B. (2013). Measuring

HIV and AIDS related stigma and

discrimination in Nicaragua: Results

from a community-based study.

AIDS Education Prevalence, 25(2),


UNAIDS/WHO. (2015). AIDS epidemic


UNICEF. (2009). Working with children in

conflic with law: A summary booklet

for professional in the children

justice system in the Eastern

Carribbean. Barbados: UNICEF.

Ying, K. N., Liu, H. Y., Loi, Y. Y., Pai, Y.

H., & Ko, Y. C. (2013). Case

management interventions for HIVinfected individuals. Cure

HIV/AIDS, 10, 390-397.

Zamir, R. B., Lorber, M., & Hermon, D.

(2014). Assessment of the

knowledge and attitudes regarding

HIV/AIDS among pre-clinical

medical students in Israel. BMC

Research Notes, 20(7). 168.

Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia 32 (4) (2018): 1-17 ISSN-2289-8174 17

Zhao, Q., Li, X. M., Zhao, G. X., Zhao J.

F., Fang, X. Y., Lin, X. Y., &

Stanton, B. (2011). AIDS knowledge

and HIV stigma among children

affected by HIV/AIDS in rural

China. AIDS Educations and

Prevention, 23(4), 341-350.

Zakiyah, J., & Kamarudin, A. G. (2003).

Tekanan di kalangan kakitangan

agensi perkhidmatan bantuan: Kes di

Jabatan Kebajikan Masyarakat.

Dalam Pengurusan Perkhidmatan

Kerja Sosial di Malaysia (Vol 285-

. Sintok: Universiti Utara



  • There are currently no refbacks.


The editors and publisher of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors or its publisher. Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising therefrom.