A Comparative Analysis of the Goal Orientation and Test Anxiety of High School Students With and Without Private Tutors

Ryan Francis Cayubit, Zynnclyrr Bactung, Lorraine Gualberto, Vanna Natalie Itom, Sarah Grace Morales, Lois Gaiana Penoliar, Francine Germaine Sy


The purpose of the study was to find out whether the goal orientation and test anxiety of high school students engaged in shadow education will be different from those whose only source of learning is that of mainstream education.  A total of 387 high school students participated in this comparative research.  Results of the study show that high school students without exposure to shadow education are more mastery-oriented while those with those with private tutors are more performance-oriented.  In terms of test anxiety, it appears that those engaged in shadow education are more anxious about the testing process as compared to those without private tutors.  Specifically, significant differences between the two groups were observed in their mastery orientation, level of emotionality and total test anxiety.

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