Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Emosi: Fokus kepada Ibadah Haji di Arab Saudi (Factors that Influence Emotion: Focus on Hajj Pilgrims in Saudi Arabia)

Zhooriyati Sehu Mohamad, Intan Hashimah Mohd Hashim, Zulkarnain Ahmad Hatta


Emotions are one of the important components that play a vital role in the daily life of man. Emotions play a role in determining the quality of human life, influencing people in decision making, social interactions and behavioral patterns in the environment. Although many studies have been conducted on emotion, studies that study emotions in spiritual contexts are still limited in the field of research. Therefore, this study examines how emotions are influenced by certain factors in the context of pilgrimage. More specifically, this study investigates emotional issues in the context of pilgrimage. To achieve this research objective, a qualitative study using an exploratory approach was conducted in two phases. The first phase of the study involved five participants who completed the selected diary notes for the selected ten days while performing their Hajj worship in Saudi Arabia. The second phase involved 53 participants who completed the open questionnaire for a maximum of six months after returning from performing the pilgrimage. The results of this study were analyzed using thematic analysis. The results show that the emotional experiences during the pilgrimage are varied and are motivated by various factors such as location of worship, activities such as spiritual activities and daily activities, health factors, and social interactions as well as struggles of religiosity and spirituality. The findings of this study detail not only the type of emotion experienced but also the types of factors that may contribute to the development of these emotions. The findings of this study help researchers to better understand the emotional experiences during the pilgrimage.


Keywords: Emotion, Hajj, Sprituality, Arab Saudi

Full Text:



Abu-Raiya, H., J.J. Exline, KI. Pargament and Q. Agbaria. 2008. Prevalence, predictors and implications of religious/spiritual struggles among Muslims. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Hoboken, NJ, in press.

Abu-Raiya, H., K.I. Pargament, A. Weissberger and J. Exline. 2015. An empirical examination of religious/spiritual struggles among Israeli-Jews. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 26(1), 61-79.

Ahmed, Q. A., Y. M. Arabi and Z. A. Memish. 2006. Health risks at the hajj. The Lancet, 367, 1008-1015.

Al-Ghazali, M. (1991). Alchemy of happiness (Kimiya-ye sa’a¯dat). (trans: Field, C). London: M.E. SharpInc. Retrieved from http://www.sacred-texts.com/isl/tah/index.htm

Al-Faisal, R. 2009. Hajj. United Kingdom: Garnet Publishing.

Al-Tawfiq, J.A. and Z.A. Memish. 2014. Mass gathering medicine: 2014 Hajj and Umra preparation as a leading example. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 27, 26-31.

Alzahrani, A.G., A.J. Choudhry, M.A. Al Mazroa, A.H.M. Turkistani, G.S. Nouman, Z.A. Memish. 2012. Pattern of diseases among visitors to Mina health centers during the Hajj season, 1429 H (2008 G). Journal of infection and public health, 5(1), 22-34.

Aubé, M. and A. Senteni. 1996. Emotions as commitments operators: A foundation for control structure in multi-agents systems. Dalam European Workshop on Modelling Autonomous Agents in a Multi-Agent World (pp. 13-25). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Barron, R. 2002. Heaven in stone and glass: Experiencing the spirituality of the great Cathedrals. Spring Valley: Crossroad.

Braun, V. and V. Clarke. 2006. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.

Brummer, L., L. Stopa, and R. Bucks. 2014. The influence of age on emotion regulation strategies and psychological distress. Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 42(06), 668-681.

Burns, D. and L. Neisner. 2006. Customer satisfaction in retail setting. The contribution of emotion. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 34 (1), 49-66.

Carstensen, L.L., J.M. Gottman and R.W. Levenson. 1995. Emotional behavior in long-term marriage. Psychology and Aging, 10, 140–149.

Carstensen, L.L., U. Mayr, M. Pasupathi and J.R. Nesselroade. 2000.

Emotional experience in everyday life across the adult life span. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 644–655.

Charles, S.T., C.A. Reynolds and M. Gatz. 2001. Agerelated differences and change in positive and negative affect over 23 years. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 136–151.

Chen, Y. and T.H. Feeley. 2013. Social support, social strain, loneliness, and well-being among older adults: An analysis of the Health and Retirement Study. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 31(2), 141-161.

Curtis, V., R. Aunger and T. Rabie. 2004. Evidence that disgust evolved to protect from risk of disease. Proceedings of The Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 271, 131–133.

Desmet, P. (2003). Measuring emotion: Development and application of an instrument to measure emotional responses to products. Dalam Funology, M.A. Blythe, K. Overbeeke, A.F. Monk and P.C. Wright, 111-123. Springer Netherlands.

Ekman, P. 2003. Emotions revealed. London: Phoenix.

Exline, J. J. 2013. Religious and spiritual struggles. Dalam K. I. Pargament, J. J.

Exline, & J. W. Jones (Eds.), APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality: Vol. 1. Context, theory, and research (pp. 459–475). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Exline, J. J., K.I. Pargament, J.B. Grubbs and A.M. Yali. 2014. The religious and spiritual struggles scale: Development and initial validation. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 6, 208–222.

Fellows, F.R. and Liu, A.M.M. 2015. Research methods for construction. 4th ed. West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.

Gross, J. J., L.L. Carstensen, M. Pasupathi, J. Tsai, C. G. Skorpen and A.Y.C. Hsu. 1997. Emotion and aging: Experience, expression, and control. Psychology and Aging, 12, 590–599.

Hede, A. M. and J. Hall. 2012. Evoked emotions: Textual analysis within the context of pilgrimage tourism to Gallipoli. Dalam Field guide to case study research in tourism, hospitality and leisure (pp. 45-60). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

James, W. 1884. What is emotion? Mind, 9, 188-205.

Ibrahim, M.K. 2010. Travelog haji: Mengubah sempadan Iman. Selangor, Malaysia: PTS Islamika Sdn. Bhd.

Kalat. J.W. and M.N. Shiota. 2007. Emotion. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth/Vicki Knight Publishing.

Kindermann, K. and U. Riegel. 2016. Experiencing churches as spiritual and religious places: A study on children’s emotions in church buildings during scholastic field trips. British Journal of Religious Education, 1-12.

Lawton, M.P., M.H. Kleban, D. Rajagopal and J. Dean. 1992. Dimensions of affective experience in three age groups. Psychology and Aging, 7, 171–184.

LeDoux, J.E. 1996. The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. New York: Simon & Schuster.

McConnell, K.M., K.I. Pargament, C.G.Ellison, and K.J. Flannelly. 2006. Examining the links between spiritual struggles and symptoms of psychopathology in a national sample. Journal of clinical psychology, 62(12), 1469-1484.

Nezlek, J.B. and P. Kuppens. 2008) Regulating positive and negative emotions in daily life. Journal of Personality, 76:3.

Nolte, J. 2002. The human brain (5th edition). St. Louis: Mosby.

Pargament, K.I. 2007. Spirituality integrated psychotherapy: Understanding and addressing the sacred. New York, Ny: Guilford Press.

Parkinson, B., A.H. Fischer and A.S.R. Manstead. 2005. Emotion in social relations: Cultural, group, and interpersonal processes. New York: Psychology Press.

Pham, T.D. and D. Tran. 2012. Emotion recognition using the emotiv epoc device. Dalam International Conference on Neural Information Processing (pp. 394-399). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Robbins, S.P. and A.J. Timothy. 2010. Organizational behavior. Prentice Hall: New York Public Library.

Rocke, C., S.C. Li and J. Smith. 2009. Intraindividual variability in positive and negative affect over 45 days: Do older adults fluctuate less than young adults? Psychology and Aging, 24, 863–878.

Russell, J.A., J. Bachorowski and J. Fernandez-Dols. 2003. Facial and vocal expressions of emotion. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 329–349.

Salmon-Rousseau, A., E. Piednoir, V. Cattoir and A. de La Blanchardière. 2016. Hajj- associated infections. Medecine et maladies infectieuses, 46, 346–354.

Salaamgateway.com. 14 August 2019. Retrieved from

https://www.salaamgateway.com/en/story/hajj_2019_saudi_arabia_announces_final_numbers_and_statistics_for_this_years_muslim_major_pilgrimage-SALAAM15082019161717/ (14 August 2019)

Sander, D., D. Grandjean, G. Pourtois, S. Schwartz, M.L. Seghier, K.R. Scherer and P. Vuilleumier. 2005. Emotion and attention interactions in social cognition: Brain regions involved in processing anger prosody. Neuroimage, 28(4), 848-858.

Saudi Gazette (2014, October 19). Saudi Arabia has hosted 25 million hajj pilgrims in 10 years. Al Arabiya English. Retrieved from http://english.alarabiya.net/en/perspective/features/2014/10/19/Saudi-Arabia-hosted-25m-hajj-pilgrims-in-past-10-years.html

Scherer, K.R. 2003. Vocal communication of emotion: A review of research paradigms. Speech Communication, 40(1–2), 227–256.

Shafi, S., R. Booy, E. Haworth, H. Rashid and Z.A. Memish. 2008. Hajj: Health lessons for mass gatherings. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 1, 27-32.

Shafi, S., O. Dar, M. Khan, M. Khan, E. I. Azhar, B. McCloskey, A. Zumla and E. Petersen. 2016. The annual Hajj pilgrimage—minimizing the risk of ill health in pilgrims from Europe and opportunity for driving the best prevention and health promotion guidelines. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 47, 79-82.

Siemer, M., I. Mauss and J.J. Gross. 2007. Same situation-different emotions: How appraisals shape our emotions. Emotion, 7 (3), 592-600.

Stysko-Kunkowska, M. 2014. Interviews as a qualitative research method in management and economics sciences. Warsaw, Poland: Warsaw School of Economics.

Wallbott, H. G., & Scherer, K. R. (1986). The antecedents of emotional experience. Dalam Experiencing emotion: A cross-cultural study, eds. K.R. Scherer, H.G. Wallbott and A. B. Summerfield, 69–83. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


The editors and publisher of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors or its publisher. Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising therefrom.