Pengaruh Imej Badan dan Penghargaan Kendiri ke atas Kebimbangan Sosial dalam Kalangan Mahasiswa di Malaysia (The Role of Body Image and Self-Esteem on Social Anxiety Amongst University Students in Malaysia)

Siti Anisah Muhamad Johan, AbRahman Roseliza-Murni


This study aimed at investigating the role of body image and self-esteem in predicting social anxiety amongst students from two universities in Malaysia. A total of 320 students were recruited in this study, of which 168 were the students of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and another 152 were the students of Universiti Kuala Lumpur. Three scales were adopted in this study whereby the Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) scale was used to measure self-esteem, the Multidimensional Body-Self Relation Questionnaire (MBSRQ) was used to measure body image, while Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was used to measure social anxiety. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to measure the predictive value of body image and self-esteem on social anxiety. The findings revealed that self-esteem and four dimensions of body image namely fitness orientation, appearance evaluation, health evaluation and health orientation significantly predicted social anxiety amongst the study sample. Hence, implying the importance of self-esteem and some dimensions of body image in influencing social anxiety.

Full Text:



American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC

Baker, L. & Gringart, E. (2009). Body image and self-esteem in older adulthood. Ageing and Society, 29: 977-955.

Bandura, A. 1977. Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice-Hall

Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bearman, S. K., & Stice, E. (2008). Testing a gender additive model: The role of body image in adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36: 1251-1263.

Beck, A.T., Brown, G.K., Steer, R.A., Kuyken, W., & Grisham, J. (2001). Psychometric properties of the Beck Self-Esteem Scales. Behavior and Research Theraphy, 39: 115-124.

Bruzzese, J.M., Fisher, P.H., Lemp, N., & Warner, C.M. (2009). Asthma and social anxiety in adolescents. The Journal of Pediatric, 155(3): 398-403.

Carneiro, R., Zeytinoglu, S., Hort, F., & Wilkins, E. (2013). Culture, beauty and therapeutic alliance. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 25: 80-92

Cash, T. F. (2004). Body image: past, present and future. Body Image, 1: 1-5.

Cash, T. F. 2000. User’s Manual for the Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire. Available from the author at

Cash, T.F., & Smolak, L. (2011). Body Image: A Handbook of Science, Practice, and Prevention. New York: Guilford Press.

Connor, K. M., Davidson, J. R. T., Churchill, L. E., Sherwoood, A., Foa, E., & Weisler, R. H. (2000). Psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Inventory. British Journal of Psychiatry, 176: 379-386.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1995). Human agency: The basis for true self-esteem. In M. Kernis (Ed.), Efficacy, Agency, and Self-Esteem, pp. 31–50. New York: Plenum.

Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. (2015). Kamus Dewan (Edisi Keempat). Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Ditmar, H., Lloyd, B., Dugan, S., Halliwell, E., Jacobs, N., & Carmer, H. (2000). The “body beautiful”: English adolescents’ images of ideal bodies. Sex Roles, 42: 887-915.

Doron, J., Thomas-Olliver, V., Vachon, H., & Fortes-Bourbousson, M. (2013). Relationship between cognitive coping, self-esteem, anxiety and depression: A cluster-analysis approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(5): 515-520.

Durand, V.M., Barlow, D.H., Hofmann, S.G. (2019). Essentials of Abnormal Psychology, 8th Ed. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning, Inc.

Dyson, R., & Renk, K. (2006). Freshman adaptation of university life; Depressive symptoms, stress and coping. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62: 1231-1244.

Englen-Maddox, R. (2006). Buying a beauty standard or dreaming of a new life? Expectations associated with media ideals. Psychology of Women Quaterly, 30: 258-266.

Engeln-Maddox, R. (2005). Cognitive responses to idealized media images of women: The relationship of social comparison and critical processing to body image disturbance in college women. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24: 1114-1138.

Fabio, D.A., & Kenny, M.A. (2016). From decent work to decent lives: Positive Self and Relational Management (PS & RM) in the twenty-first century. Frontiers in Psychology, 7: 361.

Festinger L. A. (1954). Theory of social comparison process. Human Relation, 7: 40-117

Furnham, A., Badmin, N., & Sneade, I. (2002). Body image dissatisfaction: Gender difference in eating attitudes, self-esteem and reason for exercise. The Journal of Psychology, 136(6): 581-596

Garber, J., & Flynn, C. (2001). Predictors of depressive cognitions in young adolescents. Cognitive Theory and Research, 25: 353-376.

Han, M. (2003). Body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbance among Korean college female students: Relationship to media exposure, upward comparison and perceived reality. Communication Studies, 54: 65-78.

Harrison, K., & Cantor, J. (1997). The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of Communication, 47: 40–67.

Iancu, I., Bodner, E., & Ben-Zion, I. Z. (2014). Self-esteem, dependency, self-efficacy and self-critism in social anxiety disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 58:165-71

Institute of Public Health (2017). National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2017: Adolescent Health Survey 2017. Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Health Malaysia.

Jung, J., Forbes, G. B., & Lee Y. J. (2009). Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among early adolescent from Korean and the US. Sex Roles, 61: 42-54

Jung, J., & Forbes, G. B. (2006). Multidimensional assesement of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in Korean and US college women: A comparative study. Sex Roles, 55(1-2): 39-50.

Kim, S. (2018). Eating disorder, body dissatisfaction, and self-esteem among south Korean women. Social Behavior and Personality, 46(9): 1537-1546.

Kim H. L. (2014). The effects of sociocultural effects, BMI, body image and body dissatisfaction on self-esteem in adolescent. Journal of the Korea Institute of Youth Facility and Environment, 12(4): 175-182.

Latiff, L., Aszahari, M., Khalek, N.F.A., Fang, K.J., & Ibrahim, N. (2014). Prevelance of mental health problems and the associated factors among undergraduate students in a public university. International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Science, 1(1): 59-69

Lavine, H., Sweeney, D., & Wagner, S. H. (1999). Depicting women as sex objects in television advertising: Effects on body dissatisfaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25: 1049–1058.

Leary, M. R., & Baumeister, R. F. (2000). The nature and function of self-esteem: Sociometer Theory. Advanced in Experimental Social Psychology, 32: 1-62.

Leary, M. R., Tambor, E. S., Terdal, S. K., & Downs, D. L. (1995). Self-Esteem as an interpersonal monitor: The Sociometer Hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68: 518-530.

Lee, J.S., Lee, S.Y., & Rho, J.O. (2012). The effect of body weight status, perception of body shapeand satisfaction of body shape on obesity stress, self-esteem among male and female middle school students [In Korea]. Korean Journal of Human Ecology, 21: 1223-1234.

Lzgic, F., Akyuz, Ci., Dogan, O., & Kugu, N. (2004). Social phobia among university students and its relation to self-esteem and body image. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49: 630-634.

Mann, M., Hosman, C.M.H., Schaalma, H.P., & De Vries, N.K., (2004). Self-Esteem in a broad-spectrum approach for mental health promotion. Health Education Research, 19: 357-372.

Pop. C, (2016). Self Esteem and body image perception in sample of university students. Eurasian Journal Research, 64: 31-44

Radeef, A.S., Faisal, G.G., Ali, S.M., & Ismail, M.K.H.M. (2014). Source of stressor and emotional disturbances among undergraduate science student in Malaysia. International Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences, 3: 401-410.

Rapee, R.M., & Heimberg, R.G. (1997) A cognitive-bhavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behavior Research and Theraphy, 35: 741-756.

Rosernberg, M. (1965). Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Rosenberg, M., Schooler, C., Schoenbach, C., & Rosenberg, F. (1995). Global Self-Esteem and Specific Self-Esteem: Different Concepts, Different Outcomes. American Sociological Review, 60 (1):141-156.

Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the Self. New York: Basic Books.

Rozmi Ismail. (2013). Metodologi Penyelidikkan: Teori dan Praktis. Bangi: Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Rozmi Ismail. (2011). Psikologi Sosial. Bangi: Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Sahoo, S., & Khess, C.R.J. (2010). Prevelance of depression, anxiety, and stress among young male adult in india. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198: 901-904.

Seligman, M.E.P., Reivich, K., Jaycox, L. & Gillham, J. (1995). The Optimistic Child. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Seok, C. B., Harris Shah Abdul Hamid, Jasmine Adela Mutang, & Rosnah Ismail (2018). Psychometric properties of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y) among Malaysian university student. Sustainability, 10(9):3311-3324.

Shepherd, R. M., & Edelman, R. J. (2009). The interrelationship of social anxiety with anxiety, depression, locus of control, ways of coping and ego strength amongst university students. College Quarterly, 12(2): 1-13

Solomon, M. R., Ashmore, R. D., & Longo, L. C. (1992). The beauty match-up hypothesis: Congruence between types of beauty and product images in advertising. Journal of Advertising, 21: 23-34

Twobin, A. M., Haddock, A. S., Zimmerman, S. T., Lund, K. L., Tanaer, R. T. (2008). Image of gender, race, age, and sexual orientation in Disney feature-length animated films. Journal of Feminist Family Theraphy, 15: 147-168.

World Health Organization (1998). World Health Organization Definition of Health. Available online: [1 Disember 2018]

Yan. Y., & Kim. B. (2014). The globalization of beauty: How is ideal beauty influenced by globally published fashion and beauty magazines? Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 43(3): 194-214.

You, S., & You, K. (2016). Body dissatisfaction and mental health outcomes among Korean college Students. Psychological Reports, 1 8(3): 714-724.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


The editors and publisher of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia have made every possible effort to verify the accuracy of all information contained in this publication. Any opinions, discussions, views and recommendations expressed in the article are solely those of the authors and are not of Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors or its publisher. Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, its editors and its publisher will not be liable for any direct, indirect, consequential, special, exemplary, or other damages arising therefrom.